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  • Wollenberg, E.; Iwan, R.; Limberg, G.; Moeliono, M.; Rhee, S.; Sudana, M. (Ecology and Society, 2007
      Adaptive management has become increasingly common where natural resource managers face complex and uncertain conditions. The collaboration required among managers and others to do adaptive management, however, is not always easy to achieve. We describe efforts to work with villagers and government officials in Malinau, East Kalimantan Indonesia, where a weak, uncertain institutional setting and complex shifting political landscape made formal cooperation among these groups for forest management problematic. Through successive trials, the team learned instead to work with and enhance a "spontaneous order" of cooperation using four tactics: (1) continuous physical presence, (2) regular contact with the people who advised and were close to major decision makers, (3) maintenance of multiple programs to fit the needs of different interest groups, and (4) hyperflexibility in resource allocation and schedules.
  • Roman, J.; Ehrlich, P. E.; Pringle, R.; Avise, J. A. (Solutions, 2010
      Human history has followed a pattern—which began in Africa but is now global in scope—of exploiting nature and depleting resources. As we have expanded our influence over the world, we have also extinguished species and populations at an alarming rate. Despite attempts to reduce biodiversity loss, the trend is likely to continue: nearly 20% of all humans—more than a billion—now live within biodiversity hotspots, and their growth rate is faster than the population at large. This article presents nine steps to reduce biodiversity loss, with a goal of categorizing human-caused extinctions as wrongs, such as the slave trade and child labor, that are unacceptable to society. These steps include developing a system of parks that highlight the planet’s biological legacy, much as historical landmarks celebrate human history. Legal prohibitions that are fairly and capably enforced will also be essential in protecting rare and declining species. Biodiversity endowments—from national governments, nongovernmental organizations, and private enterprises—can help support parks and native species in perpetuity. Like a good sports team, conservationists need to defend extant wilderness areas, but they also need to play offense by restoring ecosystems, reclaiming keystone and umbrella species, and making human landscapes more hospitable to biodiversity. In the long run, the most effective forms of conservation will be those that engage local stakeholders; the cultivation of sustainable ecosystems and their services must be promoted along with conservation of endangered species and populations. The emerging field of ecological economics can unite these goals by revealing the connections between human well-being and conservation.
  • Burgess, N. D.; Hales, J. D.; Ricketts, T. H.; Dinerstein, E. (Biological Conservation, 2006
      Biodiversity in Africa, Madagascar and smaller surrounding islands is both globally extraordinary and increasingly threatened. However, to date no analyses have effectively integrated species values (e.g., richness, endemism) 'non-species' values (e.g., migrations, intact assemblages), and threats into a single assessment of conservation priorities. We present such an analysis for the 119 ecoregions of Africa, Madagascar and smaller islands. Biodiversity is not evenly distributed across Africa and patterns vary somewhat among taxonomic groups. Analyses of most vertebrates (i.e., birds, mammals, amphibians) tend to identify one set of priority ecoregions, while plants, reptiles, and invertebrates highlight additional areas. 'Non-species' biological values are not correlated with species measures and thus indicate another set of ecoregions. Combining species and non-species values is therefore crucial for assembling a comprehensive portfolio of conservation priorities across Africa. Threats to biodiversity are also unevenly distributed across Africa. We calculate a synthetic threat index using remaining habitat, habitat block size, degree of habitat fragmentation, coverage within protected areas, human population density, and the extinction risk of species. This threat index is positively correlated with all three measures of biological value (i.e., richness, endemism, non-species values), indicating that threats tend to be focused on the region's most important areas for biodiversity. Integrating biological values with threats allows identification of two distinct sets of ecoregion priority. First, highly imperilled ecoregions with many narrow endemic species that require focused actions to prevent the loss of further habitat leading to the extinction of narrowly distributed endemics. Second, less threatened ecoregions that require maintenance of large and well-connected habitats that will support large-scale habitat processes and associated area-demanding species. By bringing these data together we can be much more confident that our set of conservation recommendations serves the needs of biodiversity across Africa, and that the contribution of different agencies to achieving African conservation can be firmly measured against these priorities. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Mika, A. M.; Keeton, W. S. (Global Change Biology Bioenergy, 2013
      With growing interest in wood bioenergy there is uncertainty over greenhouse gas emissions associated with offsetting fossil fuels. Although quantifying postharvest carbon (C) fluxes will require accurate data, relatively few studies have evaluated these using field data from actual bioenergy harvests. We assessed C reductions and net fluxes immediately postharvest from whole-tree harvests (WTH), bioenergy harvests without WTH, and nonbioenergy harvests at 35 sites across the northeastern United States. We compared the aboveground forest C in harvested with paired unharvested sites, and analyzed the C transferred to wood products and C emissions from energy generation from harvested sites, including indirect emissions from harvesting, transporting, and processing. All harvests reduced live tree C; however, only bioenergy harvests using WTH significantly reduced C stored in snags (P<0.01). On average, WTH sites also decreased downed coarse woody debris C while the other harvest types showed increases, although these results were not statistically significant. Bioenergy harvests using WTH generated fewer wood products and resulted in more emissions released from bioenergy than the other two types of harvests, which resulted in a greater net flux of C (P<0.01). A Classification and Regression Tree analysis determined that it was not the type of harvest or amount of bioenergy generated, but rather the type of skidding machinery and specifics of silvicultural treatment that had the largest impact on net C flux. Although additional research is needed to determine the impact of bioenergy harvesting over multiple rotations and at landscape scales, we conclude that operational factors often associated with WTH may result in an overall intensification of C fluxes. The intensification of bioenergy harvests, and subsequent C emissions, that result from these operational factors could be reduced if operators select smaller equipment and leave a portion of tree tops on site.
  • Farley, J.; Schmitt F., A. L.; Alvez, J. P.; Rebola, P. M. (Advances in Animal Biosciences, 2012
  • Berik, G.; Rodgers, Y. V.; Seguino, S. (Feminist Economics, 2009
      This study examines connections between intergroup inequality and macroeconomic outcomes, considering various channels through which gender, growth, and development interact. It upholds the salience not only of equality in opportunities but also equality in outcomes. The contribution argues that inequalities based on gender, race, ethnicity, and class undermine the ability to provision and expand capabilities, and it examines the macroeconomic policies that are likely to promote broadly shared development. It explores how the macroeconomy acts as a structure of constraint in achieving gender equality and in turn how gender relations in areas like education and wage gaps can have macro-level impacts. Further, it underscores that the interaction of the macroeconomy and gender relations depends on the structure of the economy, the nature of job segregation, the particular measure of gender inequality, and a country's international relations. Finally, it outlines policies for promoting gender equality as both an intrinsic goal and a step toward improving well-being.
  • Fisher, B.; Naidoo, R.; Ricketts, T. (W. H. Freeman, Cheltenham, U.K.., 2014
  • Keeton, William S.; Franklin, Jerry F. (Canadian Journal of Forest ResearchCanadian Science Publishing, New York., 2004
      The spatial distribution of biological legacies left by natural disturbances is an important source of variability in forest development. We investigated one type of biological legacy: remnant old-growth trees persisting in mature Douglas-fir forests. We hypothesized that persistence varies with topographic heterogeneity influencing fire behavior. Our two study areas are located in the southern Washington Cascade Range, USA. They have an unfragmented, mature forest cover that regenerated following wildfire. We mapped all remnant old-growth trees (live and dead) within 4.2–6.4 km long belt transects. Digital elevation models were used to generate convergent and divergent landform classes. Frequency analysis was used to test for landform associations. Live remnant western hemlock and western redcedar were strongly associated with convergent landforms and aspects that had greater availability of soil moisture. Live remnant Douglas-fir were most abundant, but were not correlated with convergence or divergence, although certain landforms had higher concentrations. Remnant snags were abundant across convergent and divergent landforms. We conclude that species with low fire resistance survive most frequently on landforms that have a dampening effect on fire intensity. Topographic variability may indirectly influence ecological functions associated with biological legacies by affecting the spatial distributions of remnant old-growth trees. (English) [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] La distribution spatiale des legs biologiques laissés par les perturbations naturelles est une importante source de variabilité dans le développement de la forêt. Les auteurs ont étudié un type de legs biologique : les vieux arbres rémanents qui persistent dans les forêts matures de douglas. Ils ont fait l'hypothèse que la persistance varie avec l'hétérogénéité topographique qui influence le comportement du feu. Leurs deux zones d'étude sont situées dans la partie sud de la chaîne des Cascades dans l'État de Washington, aux États-Unis. On y retrouve un couvert de forêt mature non fragmentée qui origine d'un feu. Ils ont cartographié tous les vieux arbres rémanents (morts et vivants) le long de transects en bandes de 4,2 à 6,4 km. Des modèles numériques d'altitude ont été utilizés pour générer des classes de modelés convergents et divergents. L'analyse de fréquence a été utilizée pour tester les relations avec les modelés. Les tiges rémanentes encore vivantes de pruche de l'Ouest et de thuya géant sont fortement associées à des modelés convergents et à des orientations qui correspondent à une plus grande disponibilité de l'humidité dans le sol. Les tiges rémanentes encore vivantes de douglas sont très abondantes mais leur présence n'est pas corrélée avec la convergence ou la divergence bien que de plus fortes concentrations soient associées à certains modelés. Les chicots rémanents sont abondants dans les modelés convergents ou divergents. Les auteurs concluons que les espèces qui ont une faible résistance au feu survivent plus fréquemment dans les modelés qui ont pour effet de tempérer l'intensité du feu. La variabilité topographique peut indirectement influencer les fonctions écologiques associées aux legs biologiques en ayant un effet sur la distribution spatiale des vieux arbres rémanents.[Traduit par la Rédaction] (French) [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Canadian Journal of Forest Research is the property of Canadian Science Publishing and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
  • Zencey, E. (Routledge, New York, NY.New York, NY, 2009
  • Surdi, J.; Schmitt F., A.; Farley, J.; Alvez, J.; Sa Tschumi, H. (Cadernos de Agroecologia, 2011
      Considering the predominance of family farming in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, a more sustainable livestock production has proved crucial. The objective of this study was to understand dairy farmer’s awareness about ecosystem services. Sixty dairy farmers working under the Voisin system were randomly selected through structured interviews. Results revealed that farmers perceived that soils were more structured, moist and covered under Voisin system. In addition, the annual silage production and supplementation decreased due to the improvement of naturalized pasture. Farmers also observed an increase in carrying capacity. After the adoption of the Voisin system, farmers began to deliver water through water-tanks in the paddocks, decreasing animal access to water sources. Thus, it was observed that pasture-based milk production improved the farm environment, causing an apparent increase in the flow of services of this pastoral agroecosystems.
  • Chappell, M. J.; Wittman, H.; Bacon, C. M.; Ferguson, B. G.; Barrios, L. G.; Barrios, R. G.; Jaffee, D.; Lima, J.; Mendez, V. E.; Morales, H.; Soto-Pinto, L.; Vandermeer, J.; Perfecto, I. (F1000ResF1000Research, 2013
      Strong feedback between global biodiversity loss and persistent, extreme rural poverty are major challenges in the face of concurrent food, energy, and environmental crises. This paper examines the role of industrial agricultural intensification and market integration as exogenous socio-ecological drivers of biodiversity loss and poverty traps in Latin America. We then analyze the potential of a food sovereignty framework, based on protecting the viability of a diverse agroecological matrix while supporting rural livelihoods and global food production. We review several successful examples of this approach, including ecological land reform in Brazil, agroforestry, milpa, and the uses of wild varieties in smallholder systems in Mexico and Central America. We highlight emergent research directions that will be necessary to assess the potential of the food sovereignty model to promote both biodiversity conservation and poverty reduction.
  • Doris, J. J.; Rizzo, D. M.; Dewoolkar, M. M. (International Journal for Numerical and Analytical Methods in Geomechanics, 2008
      Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are used to estimate vertical ground surface movement when soils expand and contract due to changes in soil moisture content caused by changing climate conditions. Several counterpropagation ANN test cases were investigated to map climate data (i.e. temperature and rainfall) to vertical ground surface movement at field sites in Texas and Australia. Three of the four ANN test cases use a historical time series of climate data to forecast ground surface elevation relative to a specified datum. The fourth ANN test case predicts the rate of ground surface movement, and requires post-processing of the predicted rates to calculate ground surface elevation relative to a specified datum. The counterpropagation network has demonstrated a successful mapping of temperature and rainfall data to vertical ground surface movement at a field site when it is trained with a subset of data from the same field site (test cases 1 and 2). The results of training an ANN on one field site and testing it on another field site (test cases 3 and 4) demonstrate the ability of the ANN to capture trends in vertical ground surface movement. When compared with the predictions from a physics-based method (shrink test-water content method) that requires measurements/ estimates of changes in soil water content, the ANN-based predictions (based on climatic changes) captured the trends in the field measurements of shrinking-swelling soil surface movements equally well. These findings are promising and merit further investigation with data from additional field sites. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • Nunery, J. S.; Keeton, W. S. (Forest Ecology and Management, 2010
      Temperate forests are an important carbon sink, yet there is debate regarding the net effect of forest management practices on carbon storage. Few studies have investigated the effects of different silvicultural systems on forest carbon stocks, and the relative strength of in situ forest carbon versus wood products pools remains in question. Our research describes (1) the impact of harvesting frequency and proportion of post-harvest structural retention on carbon storage in northern hardwood-conifer forests, and (2) tests the significance of including harvested wood products in carbon accounting at the stand scale. We stratified Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plots to control for environmental, forest structural and compositional variables, resulting in 32 FIA plots distributed throughout the northeastern U.S. We used the USDA Forest Service's Forest Vegetation Simulator to project stand development over a 160 year period under nine different forest management scenarios. Simulated treatments represented a gradient of increasing structural retention and decreasing harvesting frequencies, including a "no harvest" scenario. The simulations incorporated carbon flux between aboveground forest biomass (dead and live pools) and harvested wood products. Mean carbon storage over the simulation period was calculated for each silvicultural scenario. We investigated tradeoffs among scenarios using a factorial treatment design and two-way ANOVA. Mean carbon sequestration was significantly (alpha = 0.05) greater for "no management" compared to any of the active management scenarios. Of the harvest treatments, those favoring high levels of structural retention and decreased harvesting frequency stored the greatest amounts of carbon. Classification and regression tree analysis showed that management scenario was the strongest predictor of total carbon storage, though site-specific variables were important secondary predictors. In order to isolate the effect of in situ forest carbon storage and harvested wood products, we did not include the emissions benefits associated with substituting wood fiber for other construction materials or energy sources. Modeling results from this study show that harvesting frequency and structural retention significantly affect mean carbon storage. Our results illustrate the importance of both post-harvest forest structure and harvesting frequency in carbon storage, and are valuable to land owners interested in managing forests for carbon sequestration. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Kuemmerle, T.; Chaskovskyy, O.; Knorn, J.; Radeloff, V. C.; Kruhlov, I.; Keeton, W. S.; Hostert, P. (Remote Sensing of Environment, 2009
      Illegal logging is a major environmental and economic problem, and exceeds in some countries the amounts of legally harvested timber. In Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union, illegal logging increased and reforestation on abandoned farmland was widespread after the breakdown of socialism, and the region's forest cover trends remain overall largely unclear. Our goal here was to map forest cover change and to assess the extent of illegal logging and reforestation in the Ukrainian Carpathians. We used Landsat TM/ETM+ images and Support Vector Machines (SVM) to derive forest change trajectories between 1988 and 2007 for the entire Ukrainian Carpathians. We calculated logging and reforestation rates, and compared Landsat-based forest trends to official statistics and inventory maps. Our classification resulted in reliable forest/nonforest maps (overall accuracies between 97.1%-98.01%) and high clear cut detection rates (on average 89.4%). Forest cover change was widespread in the Ukrainian Carpathians between 1988 and 2007. We found forest cover increase in peripheral areas, forest loss in the interior Carpathians, and increased logging in remote areas. Overall, our results suggest that unsustainable forest use from socialist times likely persisted in the post-socialist period, resulting in a continued loss of older forests and forest fragmentation. Landsat-based forest trends differed substantially from official forest resource statistics. Illegal logging appears to have been at least as extensive as documented logging during the early 1990s and so-called sanitary clear-cuts represent a major loophole for overharvesting and logging in restricted areas. Reforestation and illegal logging are frequently not accounted for in forest resource statistics, highlighting limitations of these data. Combating illegal logging and transitioning towards sustainable forestry requires better monitoring and up-to-date accounting of forest resources, in the Carpathians and elsewhere in Eastern Europe, and remote sensing can be a key technology to achieve these goals. (C) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Penn, C. A.; Wemple, B. C.; Campbell, J. L. (Hydrological Processes, 2012
      Many factors influence snow depth, water content and duration in forest ecosystems. The effects of forest cover and canopy gap geometry on snow accumulation has been well documented in coniferous forests of western North America and other regions; however, few studies have evaluated these effects on snowpack dynamics in mixed deciduous forests of the northeastern USA. We measured snow depth and water equivalent near the time of peak snowpack accumulation and, again, during snowmelt to better understand the effect of forests on snowpack properties in the northeastern USA. Surveys occurred in openings and under the forest canopy at plots with different characteristics (e.g. aspect, elevation, forest composition) within the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, USA. Snow water equivalent (SWE) was significantly greater in openings (?p?=?0.021) than in forests on north-facing plots but not on south-facing plots (?p?=?0.318) in early March 2009. One month later, SWE was more variable but remained greater in openings on north-facing plots (?p?=?0.067), whereas SWE was greater (?p?=?0.071) under forests than in clearings on south-facing plots, where snowmelt had sufficiently progressed. During peak accumulation, SWE decreased with increasing conifer cover on north-facing plots. During the snowmelt period, SWE on south-facing plots decreased with increasing basal area, sky view factor and diameter at breast height of trees on the plots. These results have implications for spring streamflow and soil moisture in the face of changing climate conditions and land use pressures in the forests of northern New England. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
  • Knorn, J.; Kuemmerle, T.; Radeloff, V. C.; Szabo, A.; Mindrescu, M.; Keeton, W. S.; Abrudan, I.; Griffiths, P.; Gancz, V.; Hostert, P. (Biological Conservation, 2012
      The effectiveness of protected areas can diminish during times of pronounced socio-economic and institutional change. Our goals were to assess the effectiveness of Romanian protected areas at stemming unsanctioned logging, and to assess post-socialist logging in their surrounding landscapes, during a time of massive socio-economic and institutional change. Our results suggest that forest cover remained fairly stable shortly before and after 1990, but forest disturbance rates increased sharply in two waves after 1995 and 2005. We found substantial disturbances inside protected areas, even within core reserve areas. Moreover, disturbances in the matrix surrounding protected areas were even lower than inside protected area boundaries. We suggest that these rates are largely the result of high logging rates, triggered by rapid ownership and institutional changes. These trends compromise the goals of Romania's protected area network, lead to an increasing loss of forest habitat, and more isolated and more fragmented protected areas. The effectiveness of Romania's protected area network in terms of its ability to safeguard biodiversity is therefore most likely decreasing. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Wollenberg, E.; Merino, L.; Agrawal, A.; Ostrom, E. (International Forestry Review, 2007
      Although community managed forests constitute a significant proportion of the worlds' forests, there is little information about their condition or how they are managed. The International Forestry Resources and Institutions (IFRI) network is a research programme established in 1992 to collect interdisciplinary information about forest sustainability and governance. IFRI is unique in terms of the large number of small-scale sites monitored (more than 350 communities and 9000 forest plots) for more than a decade, under the guidance of strong central leadership, a well defined research framework, relative autonomy of network members, and a strong inward focus. These features have enabled IFRI to have particular impacts on new knowledge, policy and local communities, and capacity building. Lessons about how to further strengthen, extend and sustain these impacts include developing more robust agreement about measures of forest sustainability, building network members' capacities to conduct comparative analysis, ensuring the database meets the needs of Multiple users and expanding the membership and outreach of the network.
  • Aburto-Oropeza, O.; Ezcurra, E.; Moxley, J.; Sanchez-Rodriguez, A.; Mascarenas-Osorio, I.; Sanchez-Ortiz, C.; Erisman, B.; Ricketts, T. (Ecological Indicators, 2015
      The recovery of historic community assemblages on reefs is a primary objective for the management of marine ecosystems. Working under the overall hypothesis that, as fishing pressure increases, the abundance in upper trophic levels decreases followed by intermediate levels, we develop an index that characterizes the comparative health of rocky reefs. Using underwater visual transects to sample rocky reefs in the Gulf of California, Mexico, we sampled 147 reefs across 1200 km to test this reef health index (IRH). Five-indicators described 88% of the variation among the reefs along this fishing-intensity gradient: the biomass of piscivores and carnivores were positively associated with reef health; while the relative abundances of zooplanktivores, sea stars, and sea urchins, were negatively correlated with degraded reefs health. The average size of commercial macro-invertebrates and the absolute fish biomass increased significantly with increasing values of the IRE. Higher total fish biomass was found on reefs with complex geomorphology compared to reefs with simple geomorphology (r(2) = 0.14, F = 44.05, P<0.0001) and the trophic biomass pyramid also changed, which supports the evidence of the inversion of biomass pyramids along the gradient of reefs' health. Our findings introduce a novel approach to classify the health of rocky reefs under different fishing regimes and therefore resultant community structures. Additionally, our IRH provides insight regarding the potential gains in total fish biomass that may result from the conservation and protection of reefs with more complex geomorphology. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.
  • Bagstad, K. J.; Villa, F.; Batker, D.; Harrison-Cox, J.; Voigt, B.; Johnson, G. W. (Ecology and Society, 2014
      Ecosystem services mapping and modeling has focused more on supply than demand, until recently. Whereas the potential provision of economic benefits from ecosystems to people is often quantified through ecological production functions, the use of and demand for ecosystem services has received less attention, as have the spatial flows of services from ecosystems to people. However, new modeling approaches that map and quantify service-specific sources (ecosystem capacity to provide a service), sinks (biophysical or anthropogenic features that deplete or alter service flows), users (user locations and level of demand), and spatial flows can provide a more complete understanding of ecosystem services. Through a case study in Puget Sound, Washington State, USA, we quantify and differentiate between the theoretical or in situ provision of services, i.e., ecosystems' capacity to supply services, and their actual provision when accounting for the location of beneficiaries and the spatial connections that mediate service flows between people and ecosystems. Our analysis includes five ecosystem services: carbon sequestration and storage, riverine flood regulation, sediment regulation for reservoirs, open space proximity, and scenic viewsheds. Each ecosystem service is characterized by different beneficiary groups and means of service flow. Using the ARtificial Intelligence for Ecosystem Services (ARIES) methodology we map service supply, demand, and flow, extending on simpler approaches used by past studies to map service provision and use. With the exception of the carbon sequestration service, regions that actually provided services to people, i.e., connected to beneficiaries via flow paths, amounted to 16-66% of those theoretically capable of supplying services, i.e., all ecosystems across the landscape. These results offer a more complete understanding of the spatial dynamics of ecosystem services and their effects, and may provide a sounder basis for economic valuation and policy applications than studies that consider only theoretical service provision and/or use.

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