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  • Lucero, D. E.; Morrissey, L. A.; Rizzo, D. M.; Rodas, A.; Garnica, R.; Stevens, L.; Bustamante, D. M.; Carlota Monroy, M. (American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2013
      In this study, we evaluate the effect of participatory Ecohealth interventions on domestic reinfestation of the Chagas disease vector Triatoma dimidiata after village-wide suppression of the vector population using a residual insecticide. The study was conducted in the rural community of La Brea, Guatemala between 2002 and 2009 where vector infestation was analyzed within a spatial data framework based on entomological and socio-economic surveys of homesteads within the village. Participatory interventions focused on community awareness and low-cost home improvements using local materials to limit areas of refuge and alternative blood meals for the vector within the home, and potential shelter for the vector outside the home. As a result, domestic infestation was maintained at <= 3% and peridomestic infestation at <= 2% for 5 years beyond the last insecticide spraying, in sharp contrast to the rapid reinfestation experienced in earlier insecticide only interventions.
  • Todd, J.; Brown, E. J. G.; Wells, E. (Ecological Engineering, 2003
      Over the past three decades ecological design has been applied to an increasingly diverse range of technologies and innovative solutions for the management of resources. Ecological technologies have been created for the food sector, waste conversion industries, architecture and landscape design, and to the field of environmental protection and restoration. The five case studies presented here represent applications of ecological design in five areas: sewage treatment, the restoration of a polluted body of water, the treatment of high strength industrial waste in lagoons, the integration of ecological systems with architecture, and an agriculturally based Eco-Park. Case #1 is an Advanced Ecologically Engineered System (AEES) for the treatment of sewage in Vermont, a cold climate. The facility treated 300 m(3) per day (79,250 gallons per day) of sewage to advanced or tertiary wastewater standards, including during the winter months. A number of commercial byproducts were developed as part of the treatment process. Case #2 involved the treatment of a pond contaminated with 295 m(3) per day (77,930 gallons per day) of toxic leachate from an adjacent landfill. A floating Restorer was built to treat the polluted pond. The Restorer was powered by wind and solar based energy sources. Over the past decade the pond has improved. There has been a positive oxygen regime throughout the water column, bottom sediments have been digested and the quality of the sediment chemistry has improved. The biodiversity of the macrobenthos of the pond has increased as a result of the improved conditions. Case #3 involved the treatment of 37,850 m 3 per day (I million gallons per day) of high strength waste from a poultry processing plant utilizing a dozen AEES Restorers. The technology has resulted in a 74% drop in energy requirements for treatment and has dramatically reduced the need for sludge removal. Currently, sludge degradation is proceeding faster than sludge accumulation. Case #4 includes several examples of buildings that utilize ecologically engineered systems to treat, recycle and permit the reuse of wastewater. The new Lewis Center for Environmental Studies at Oberlin College is a recent example of this trend. Case #5 describes the work that is leading to the creation of an urban, agriculturally based, Eco-Park in Burlington, Vermont. Waste heat from a nearby power station will provide year round climate control in a structure developed for food processing businesses, including a brewery, and for the onsite growth of diverse foods in integrated systems. We also describe a project to amplify the value of waste organic materials through biological conversion to high value products such as fish, flowers, mushrooms, soils amendments, and livestock and fish feeds. An ecologically designed fish culture facility will be an integral part of the Eco-Park complex. The project is intended to demonstrate the economic viability of integrative design in an urban setting and to address the important issue of locally based food production. (C) 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Gowdy, J.; Erickson, J. (Ecological Economics, 2005
  • Costanza, R.; Farley, J. (Ecological Economics, 2007
      Coastal disasters are increasing in frequency and magnitude-measured in terms of human lives lost, destroyed infrastructure, ecological damage and disrupted social networks. Hurricane Katrina and the Indian ocean tsunami illustrate the severe and widespread impacts of such disasters on human well-being. The proximate cause of most of these disasters is "forces of nature". However, human decisions, driven largely by economic forces, do much to aggravate these natural disasters-for example, coastal mangroves and wetlands protect coastal communities from wave surges and winds, but are rapidly being converted for the production of market goods, and anthropogenic climate change driven by the energy use of our economy may exacerbate coastal disasters in several ways. The goal of economics should be to improve the sustainable well-being of humans. Our well-being is generated in part by the production of market goods and services, but also by the goods and services provided by nature, by social networks and norms, by knowledge and health-in short: built, natural, social and human capital, respectively. in seeking to increase human well-being solely, by maximizing the monetary value of market goods (built capital), our current economic system may be doing more to undermine our sustainable well-being than to improve it, a point made clear by the growing negative impacts of coastal disasters. An economic system should allocate available resources in a way that equitably and efficiently provides for the sustainable well-being of people by protecting and investing in all four types of capital. This is what ecological economics seeks to do. This article introduces ten papers that apply the four capital framework to the analysis of coastal disasters, seeking to understand their impacts and how to mitigate them, how to predict and plan for them, and how to use this information to redesign coastal areas in a more sustainable and desirable way. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Daly, H.; Farley, J. (Island Press, Washington, D.C..Washington, D.C., 2004
  • Daly, H.; Farley, J. (Island Press, Washington, D.C..Washington, D.C., 2011
  • Voigt, B.; Troy, A. (Elsevier Science, Waltham., 2008
  • Vatovec, C.; Senier, L.; Bell, M. (Ecohealth, 2013
      Healthcare organizations are increasingly examining the impacts of their facilities and operations on the natural environment, their workers, and the broader community, but the ecological impacts of specific healthcare services provided within these institutions have not been assessed. This paper provides a qualitative assessment of healthcare practices that takes into account the life-cycle impacts of a variety of materials used in typical medical care. We conducted an ethnographic study of three medical inpatient units: a conventional cancer ward, palliative care unit, and a hospice center. Participant observations (73 participants) of healthcare and support staff including physicians, nurses, housekeepers, and administrators were made to inventory materials and document practices used in patient care. Semi-structured interviews provided insight into common practices. We identified three major domains that highlight the cumulative environmental, occupational health, and public health impacts of medical supplies and pharmaceuticals used at our research sites: (1) medical supply procurement; (2) generation, handling, and disposal of medical waste; and (3) pharmaceutical handling and disposal. Impacts discovered through ethnographic inquiry included occupational exposures to chemotherapy and infectious waste, and public health exposures to pharmaceutical waste. This study provides new insight into the environmental, occupational, and public health impacts resulting from medical practices. In many cases, the lack of clear guidance and regulations regarding environmental impacts contributed to elevated harms to the natural environment, workers, and the broader community.
  • Rocha, L. A.; Robertson, D. R.; Roman, J.; Bowen, B. W. (Proceedings of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, 2005
      The high biodiversity in tropical seas provides a long-standing challenge to allopatric speciation models. Physical barriers are few in the ocean and larval dispersal is often extensive, a combination that should reduce opportunities for speciation. Yet coral reefs are among the most species-rich habitats in the world, indicating evolutionary processes beyond conventional allopatry. In a survey of mtDNA sequences of five congeneric west Atlantic reef fishes (wrasses, genus Halichoeres) with similar dispersal potential, we observed phylogeographical patterns that contradict expectations of geographical isolation, and instead indicate a role for ecological speciation. In Halichoeres bivittatus and the species pair Halichoeres radiatus/brasiliensis, we observed strong partitions (3.4% and 2.3% divergence, respectively) between adjacent and ecologically distinct habitats, but high genetic connectivity between similar habitats separated by thousands of kilometres. This habitat partitioning is maintained even at a local scale where H. bivittatus lineages are segregated between cold- and warm-water habitats in both Bermuda and Florida. The concordance of evolutionary partitions with habitat types, rather than conventional biogeographical barriers, indicates parapatric ecological speciation, in which adaptation to alternative environmental conditions in adjacent locations overwhelms the homogenizing effect of dispersal. This mechanism can explain the long-standing enigma of high biodiversity in coral reef faunas.
  • Ali, S. H.; Grewal, A. S. (Contemporary Pacific, 2006
      Mineral development in remote parts of the world has become a major focus of environmental and social resistance movements. Despite the economic benefits that may accrue for local people, the impact of such projects is increasingly being questioned, particularly by indigenous communities. However, there are ways by which amicable and effective resolutions to development disagreements can be achieved despite cultural differences between the developer and the community. Using qualitative research methods, this article presents a comparative analysis of two mining projects on the Pacific island of New Caledonia where the indigenous Kanak community has shown differentiation in their response to the two projects. Our analysis shows that the project encountering less resistance has more effectively embraced principles of transparency, flexibility, and indigenous ownership. Our analysis suggests that mineral developers operating on indigenous lands should consider the power of process in reaching agreements rather than erroneously assuming that litigation or buyouts are inevitable. Such an approach is likely to reach more sustainable solutions to development in remote indigenous communities.
  • Ricketts, T. H.; Daily, G. C.; Ehrlich, P. R.; Michener, C. D. (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2004
      Can economic forces be harnessed for biodiversity conservation? The answer hinges on characterizing the value of nature, a tricky business from biophysical, socioeconomic, and ethical perspectives. Although the societal benefits of native ecosystems are clearly immense,they remain largely unquantified for all but a few services. Here, we estimate the value of tropical forest in supplying pollination services to agriculture. We focus on coffee because it is one of the world's most valuable export commodities and is grown in many of the world's most biodiverse regions. Using pollination experiments along replicated distance gradients, we found that forest-based pollinators increased coffee yields by 20% within approximate to1 km of forest. Pollination also improved coffee quality near forest by reducing the frequency of "peaberries" (i.e., small misshapen seeds) by 27%. During 2000-2003, pollination services from two forest fragments (46 and 111 hectares) translated into approximate to$60,000 (U.S.) per year for one Costa Rican farm. This value is commensurate with expected revenues from competing land uses and far exceeds current conservation incentive payments. Conservation investments in human-dominated landscapes can therefore yield double benefits: for biodiversity and agriculture.
  • Alcamo, J.; Ash, N. J.; Butler, C. D.; Callicott, J. B.; Capistrano, D.; Carpenter, S.; Castilla, J. C.; Chambers, R.; Chopra, K.; Cropper, A.; Daily, G. C.; Dasgupta, P.; de Groot, R.; Deitz, T.; Duraiappah, A. K.; Gadgil, M.; Hamilton, K.; Hassan, R.; Lambin, E. F.; Lebel, L.; Leemans, R.; Jiyuan, L.; Malingreau, J. P.; May, R. M.; McCalla, A. F.; McMichael, A. J.; Moldan, B.; Mooney, H. A.; Naeem, S.; Nelson, G. C.; Wen-Yuan, N.; Noble, I.; Zhiyun, O.; Pagiola, S.; Pauly, D.; Percy, S.; Pingali, P.; Prescott-Allen, R.; Reid, W. V.; Ricketts, T. H.; Samper, C.; Scholes, R.; Simons, H.; Toth, F. L.; Turpie, J. K.; Watson, R. T.; Wilbanks, T. J.; Williams, M.; Wood, S.; Shidong, Z.; Zurek, M. B. (Island Press, Washington, D. C..Washington, D. C., 2003
  • Farley, Joshua; Schmitt Filho, Abdon (Meindert Brower, Partner in communications, Bunnik, The Netherlands.Bunnik, The Netherlands, 2012
  • Zhang, W.; Ricketts, T. H.; Kremen, C.; Carney, K.; Swinton, S. M. (Ecological Economics, 2007
      Agricultural ecosystems are actively managed by humans to optimize the provision of food, fiber, and fuel. These ecosystem services from agriculture, classified as provisioning services by the recent Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, depend in turn upon a web of supporting and regulating services as inputs to production (e.g., soil fertility and pollination). Agriculture also receives ecosystem dis-services that reduce productivity or increase production costs (e.g., herbivory and competition for water and nutrients by undesired species). The flows of these services and dis-services directly depend on how agricultural ecosystems are managed and upon the diversity, composition, and functioning of remaining natural ecosystems in the landscape. Managing agricultural landscapes to provide sufficient supporting and regulating ecosystem. services and fewer dis-services will require research that is policy-relevant, multidisciplinary and collaborative. This paper focuses on how ecosystem services contribute to agricultural productivity and how ecosystem dis-services detract from it. We first describe the major services and dis-services as well as their key mediators. We then explore the importance of scale and economic externalities for the management of ecosystem service provision to agriculture. Finally, we discuss outstanding issues in regard to improving the management of ecosystem services and dis-services to agriculture. (C) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Fisher, B.; Turner, K.; Zylstra, M.; Brouwer, R.; de Groot, R.; Farber, S.; Ferraro, P.; Green, R.; Hadley, D.; Harlow, J.; Jefferiss, P.; Kirkby, C.; Morling, P.; Mowatt, S.; Naidoo, R.; Paavola, J.; Strassburg, B.; Yu, D.; Balmford, A. (Ecological Applications, 2008
      It has become essential in policy and decision-making circles to think about the economic benefits (in addition to moral and scientific motivations) humans derive from well-functioning ecosystems. The concept of ecosystem services has been developed to address this link between ecosystems and human welfare. Since policy decisions are often evaluated through cost -benefit assessments, an economic analysis can help make ecosystem service research operational. In this paper we provide some simple economic analyses to discuss key concepts involved in formalizing ecosystem service research. These include the distinction between services and bene. ts, understanding the importance of marginal ecosystem changes, formalizing the idea of a safe minimum standard for ecosystem service provision, and discussing how to capture the public bene. ts of ecosystem services. We discuss how the integration of economic concepts and ecosystem services can provide policy and decision makers with a fuller spectrum of information for making conservation -conversion trade-offs. We include the results from a survey of the literature and a questionnaire of researchers regarding how ecosystem service research can be integrated into the policy process. We feel this discussion of economic concepts will be a practical aid for ecosystem service research to become more immediately policy relevant.
  • Turner, K.; Fisher, B. (Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, U.K..Cheltenham, U.K., 2009
  • Armsworth, P. R.; Chan, K. M. A.; Daily, G. C.; Ehrlich, P. R.; Kremen, C.; Ricketts, T. H.; Sanjayan, M. A. (Conservation Biology, 2007
  • Fisher, B.; Turner, R. K. (Biological Conservation, 2008
      This letter is in response to an article by Ken Wallace titled "Classifications of ecosystem services: problems and solutions" (Biological Conservation 139, 2007). This letter discusses the points we see as problematic with Wallace's framework and sets out our conceptualization of linking ecosystem services with human welfare. In this letter we suggest that utilizing the terms intermediate services, final services and benefits should go a long way to clearing up much of the ambiguity in ecosystem services typologies, especially for economic valuation purposes. As Wallace points out, clearly defining and organizing the concept of ecosystem services is not just a semantic decision, but it is integral to operationalizing something that can clearly illuminate tradeoffs in natural resource management. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Daily, G. C.; Polasky, S.; Goldstein, J.; Kareiva, P. M.; Mooney, H. A.; Pejchar, L.; Ricketts, T. H.; Salzman, J.; Shallenberger, R. (Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 2009
      Over the past decade, efforts to value and protect ecosystem services have been promoted by many as the last, best hope for making conservation mainstream - attractive and commonplace worldwide. In theory, if we can help individuals and institutions to recognize the value of nature, then this should greatly increase investments in conservation, while at the same time fostering human well-being. In practice, however, we have not yet developed the scientific basis, nor the policy and finance mechanisms, for incorporating natural capital into resource- and land-use decisions on a large scale. Here, we propose a conceptual framework and sketch out a strategic plan for delivering on the promise of ecosystem services, drawing on emerging examples from Hawai'i. We describe key advances in the science and practice of accounting for natural capital in the decisions of individuals, communities, corporations, and governments.
  • Bhagabati, N. K.; Ricketts, T.; Sulistyawan, T. B. S.; Conte, M.; Ennaanay, D.; Hadian, O.; McKenzie, E.; Olwero, N.; Rosenthal, A.; Tallis, H.; Wolny, S. (Biological Conservation, 2014
      Ecosystem services have clear promise to help identify and protect priority areas for biodiversity. To leverage them effectively, practitioners must conduct timely analyses at appropriate scales, often with limited data. Here we use simple spatial analyses on readily available datasets to compare the distribution of five ecosystem services with tiger habitat in central Sumatra. We assessed services and habitat in 2008 and the changes in these variables under two future scenarios: a conservation-friendly Green Vision, and a Spatial Plan developed by the Indonesian government. In 2008, the range of tiger habitat overlapped substantially with areas of high carbon storage and sediment retention, but less with areas of high water yield and nutrient retention. Depending on service, location and spatial grain of analysis, there were both gains and losses from 2008 to each scenario; however, aggregate provision of each ecosystem service (except water yield) and total area of tiger habitat were higher in the Vision than the Plan, likely driven by an increase in forest cover in the Vision. Sub-watersheds with high levels of several ecosystem services contained substantially more tiger habitat than random subsets of sub-watersheds, suggesting that prioritizing ecosystem services could benefit tiger conservation. Our analyses provided input to government-led spatial planning and strategic environmental assessments in the study area, indicating that even under time and data constraints, policy-relevant assessments of multiple ecosystem services are feasible. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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