Browsing Anthropology Department by Issue Date

CTL DSpace Repository

Browsing Anthropology Department by Issue Date

Sort by: Order: Results:

  • Sutton, P. C.; Costanza, R. (Ecological Economics, 2002
      We estimated global marketed and non-marketed economic value front two classified satellite images with global coverage at 1 km(2) resolution. GDP (a measure of marketed economic output) is correlated with the amount of light energy (LE) emitted by that nation as measured by nighttime satellite images. LE emitted is more spatially explicit than whole country GDP, may (for some nations or regions) be a more accurate indicator of economic activity than GDP itself, can be directly observed, and can be easily updated on an annual basis. As far as we know, this is the first global map of estimated economic activity produced at this high spatial resolution (1 km(2)). Ecosystem services product (ESP) is an important type of non-marketed value. ESP at 1 km(2) resolution was estimated using the IGBP land-cover dataset and unit ecosystem service values estimated by Costanza et al. [Valuing Ecosystem Services with Efficiency, Fairness and Sustainability as Goals. Nature's Services, Island Press, Washington DC, pp. 49-70]. The sum of these two (GDP + ESP) = SEP is a measure of the subtotal ecological-economic product (marketed plus a significant portion of the non-marketed). The ratio: (ESP/SEP) x 100 = (%ESP is a measure of proportion of the SEP from ecosystem services. Both SEP and %ESP were calculated and mapped for each 1 km(2) pixel on the earth's surface, and aggregated by country. Results show the detailed spatial patterns of GDP, ESP, and SEP (also available at: similar to psutton/esiindexisee/EcolEconESI.htm). Globally, while GDP is concentrated in the northern industrialized countries, ESP is concentrated in tropical regions and in wetlands and other coastal systems. (X)ESP ranges from 1% for Belgium and Luxembourg to 3% for the Netherlands, 18% for India, 22% for the United States, 49% for Costa Rica, 57% for Chile, 73% for Brazil, and 92% for Russia. While GDP per capita has the usual northern industrialized countries at the top of the list, SEP per capita shows a quite different picture, with a mixture of countries with either high GDP/capita, high ESP/capita, or a combination near the top of the list. Finally, we compare our results with two other indices: (1) The 2001 Environmental Sustainabilily Index (ESI) derived as an initiative of the Global Leaders of Tomorrow Environment Task Force, World Economic Foruin, and (2) Ecological Footprints of Nations: How much Nature do they use? How much Nature do they have? developed by Mathis Wackernagel and others. While both of these indices purport to measure sustainability, the ESI is actually mainly a measure of economic activity (and is correlated with GDP), while the Eco-Footprint index is a measure of environmental impact. The related eco-deficit (national ecological capacity minus national footprint) correlates well with %ESP. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Bormann, B. T.; Keller, C. K.; Wang, D.; Bormann, F. H. (2002
      In their review of 24 studies of forest nitrogen (N) budgets, Binkley and others (2000) found that only one of them supported the conclusion that an N accumulation of more than 25 kg N ha(-1) y(-1) is possible without known symbiotic N-2-fixing plants. They contended that, given how well the N cycle is known, new N accumulation pathways are unlikely. They also concluded that the Hubbard Brook sandbox study (Bormann and others 1993) was insufficiently replicated and had low precision in vegetation and soil estimates. Here we reevaluate and extend the sandbox analysis and place the findings in a broader context. Using multiple methods of estimating vegetation N accumulation in pine sandboxes, we arrived at results that differed from the reported rates but still strongly supported large biomass N accumulation. The original study's conclusions about soil N changes were strengthened when new evidence showed that N accumulated in lower horizons and that the sandboxes were successfully homogenized at the beginning of the experiment. Unexplained ecosystem N accumulation ranged from about 40 to 150 kg ha(-1) y(-1), with 95% confidence intervals that did not include zero. No evidence was found that could balance the sandbox ecosystem N budgets without adding unexplained N. Unreplicated experiments, such as the sandboxes, can explore the possibility that N can accumulate in ways not explainable by mass balance analysis, but they cannot quantify the frequency and extent of the phenomenon. New studies should combine substantive microbiological, mass balance, and process research using multiple direct measures of N-2 fixation.
  • Moulaert, A.; Mueller, J. P.; Villarreal, M.; Piedra, R.; Villalobos, L. (2002
      A silvopastoral model that combines the production of pasture herbage with valuable native timber species has potential to simultaneously address the multiple goals of reforestation, conservation of native species and enterprise intensification. The objective of this study was to design, establish and monitor early growth of a silvopastoral experiment on a dairy farm in the north Atlantic zone of Costa Rica. Two indigenous timber species, Vochysia guatemalensis and Hyeronima alchorneoides were planted with and without the tropical pasture legume, Arachis pintoi in a split plot design, (2 x 2) factorial arrangement of treatments with four replications. After the first two years, V. guatemalensis was significantly taller (3.1 m) than H. alchorneoides (2.5 m). The mean root collar diameter for V. guatemalensis was significantly larger (6.5 cm) than H. alchorneoides (4.5 cm). Two-year establishment was acceptable for the tree component (83 to 85% survival) but poor for A. pintoi (2 to 8% of the sward). The most important pest affecting the establishment of the timber species was the leaf cutter ant, Atta cephalotes. An insect larvae, Cosmopterix sp., severely damaged 39% of the V. guatemalensis trees by repeatedly attacking their apical meristems. The two-year establishment data was insufficient to accurately predict future wood volume. A hypothetical economic analysis concluded that the silvopastoral system must average at least 1.2 m(3) wood volume/paddock/year (20 m(3)/ha/year) throughout the first ten years of growth to assure a positive economic return from timber. The experiment is planned for a ten year period, which corresponds to the estimated rotation length for harvesting the timber species.
  • Balmford, A.; Bruner, A.; Cooper, P.; Costanza, R.; Farber, S.; Green, R. E.; Jenkins, M.; Jefferiss, P.; Jessamy, V.; Madden, J.; Munro, K.; Myers, N.; Naeem, S.; Paavola, J.; Rayment, M.; Rosendo, S.; Roughgarden, J.; Trumper, K.; Turner, R. K. (Science, 2002
      On the eve of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, it is timely to assess progress over the 10 years since its predecessor in Rio de Janeiro. Loss and degradation of remaining natural habitats has continued largely unabated. However, evidence has been accumulating that such systems generate marked economic benefits, which the available data suggest exceed those obtained from continued habitat conversion. We estimate that the overall benefit:cost ratio of an effective global program for the conservation of remaining wild nature is at least 100:1.
  • de Groot, R.; Wilson, M. A.; Boumans, R. M. J. (Ecological Economics, 2002
      An increasing amount of information is being collected on the ecological and socio-economic value of goods and services provided by natural and semi-natural ecosystems. However, much of this information appears scattered throughout a disciplinary academic literature, unpublished government agency reports, and across the World Wide Web. In addition, data on ecosystem goods and services often appears at incompatible scales of analysis and is classified differently by different authors. In order to make comparative ecological economic analysis possible, a standardized framework for the comprehensive assessment of ecosystem functions, goods and services is needed. In response to this challenge, this paper presents a conceptual framework and typology for describing, classifying and valuing ecosystem functions, goods and services in a clear and consistent manner. In the following analysis, a classification is given for the fullest possible range of 23 ecosystem functions that provide a much larger number of goods and services. In the second part of the paper, a checklist and matrix is provided, linking these ecosystem functions to the main ecological, socio–cultural and economic valuation methods.
  • Costanza, R. (Ecological Economics, 2002
  • Erickson, J. D.; Gowdy, J. M. (Bioscience, 2002
  • Gustafson, S.; Wang, D. (2002
      This study examined the effects of agricultural runoff on the vegetation structure of Franklin Bog, a priority conservation area located in a rapidly developing region of northwestern Vermont. Forested and agricultural runoff from the mixed land use watershed created differential vegetation patterns in the wetland, including weedy species introductions. Concentrations of nitro-en and phosphorus were measured in the stream runoff from four forested subwatersheds and two agricultural subwatersheds. Nutrient concentrations were significantly higher for agricultural vs. forested runoff for all measured parameters. Nitrate-and total phosphorus concentrations in agricultural runoff ranged from 0.62 to 1.35 mg L-1 and 0.07 to 0.37 mg L-1, respectively Forested runoff values were less than 0.37 mg L-1 nitrate and 0.09 mg L-1 total phosphorus. Significantly higher proportions of weedy species occurred at impacted vs. reference sites (46 +/- 5%, vs. 23 +/- 4%). Furthermore, significantly higher total percent vegetated cover occurred at impacted vs. reference sites (116 +/- 11% vs. 77 +/- 9%) suggesting nutrient induced plant growth. Of the nine frequently occurring species categorized as bog species' only one was found within impacted sites while all nine were found at the reference sites. This suggests that the wetland's distinctive native flora is being replaced by widespread, vigorous species enhanced by agricultural nonpoint pollution in the watershed of Franklin Bog. Protection of wetlands requires attention to conservation measures throughout the entire watershed.
  • Boumans, R.M.J.; Burdick, D.M.; Dionne, M. (2002
      Salt marshes continue to degrade in the United States due to indirect human impacts arising from tidal restrictions. Roads or berms with inadequate provision for tidal flow hinder ecosystem functions and interfere with self-maintenance of habitat, because interactions among vegetation, soil, and hydrology within tidally restricted marshes prevent them from responding to sea level rise. Prediction of the tidal range that is expected after restoration relative to the current geomorphology is crucial for successful restoration of salt marsh habitat. Both insufficient (due to restriction) and excessive (due to subsidence and sea level rise) tidal flooding can lead to loss of salt marshes. We developed and applied the Marsh Response to Hydrological Modifications model as a predictive tool to forecast the success of management scenarios for restoring full tides to previously restricted areas. We present an overview of a computer simulation tool that evaluates potential culvert installations with output of expected tidal ranges, water discharges, and flood potentials. For three New England tidal marshes we show species distributions of plants for tidally restricted and nonrestricted areas. Elevation species are used for short-term (<5 years) predictions of changes to salt marsh habitat after tidal restoration. In addition, elevation changes of the marsh substrate measured at these sites are extrapolated to predict long-term (>5 years) changes in marsh geomorphology under restored tidal regimes. The resultant tidal regime should be designed to provide habitat requirements for salt marsh plants. At sites with substantial elevation losses a balance must be struck that stimulates elevation increases by improving sediment fluxes into marshes while establishing flooding regimes appropriate to sustain the desired plants.
  • Ricketts, T. H.; Daily, G. C.; Ehrlich, P. R. (Biological Conservation, 2002
      Indicator taxa are often proposed as efficient ways of identifying conservation priorities, but the correlation between putative indicators and other taxa has not been adequately tested. We examined whether a popular indicator taxon. the butterflies, could provide a useful surrogate measure of diversity in a closely related but relatively poorly known group, the moths, at a local scale relevant to many conservation decisions (10(0)-10(1) km(2)). We sampled butterflies and moths at 19 sites representing the three major terrestrial habitats in sub-alpine Colorado: meadows. aspen forests, and conifer forests. We found no correlation between moth and butterfly diversity across the 19 sites, using any of five different diversity measures. Correlations across only meadow sites (to test for correlation within a single, species-rich habitat) were also not significant. Butterflies were restricted largely to meadows, where their host plants occur and thermal environment is favorable. In contrast, all three habitats contained substantial moth diversity, and several moth species were restricted to each habitat. These findings suggest that (1) butterflies are unlikely to be useful indicators of moth diversity at a local scale; (2) phylogenetic relatedness is not a reliable criterion for selecting appropriate indicator taxa, and (3) a habitat-based approach would more effectively conserve moth diversity in this landscape and may be preferable in many situations where indicator taxa relationships are untested. (C) 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Behm, P. M.; Boumans, R.M. J. (Springer, New York, NY., 2002
  • Villa, F.; McLeod, H. (2002
      Environmental decision-making and policy-making at all levels refers necessarily to synthetic, approximate quantification of environmental properties such as vulnerability, conservation status, and ability to recover after perturbation. Knowledge of such properties is essential to informed decision-making, but their definition is controversial and their precise characterization requires investments in research, modeling, and data collection that are only possible in the most developed countries. Environmental agencies and governments worldwide have increasingly requested numerical quantification or semi quantitative ranking of such attributes at the ecosystem, landscape, and country level. We do not have a theory to guide their calculation, in general or specific con-texts, particularly with the amount of resources usually available in such cases. As a result, these measures are often calculated with little scientific justification and high subjectivity, and such doubtful approximations are used for critical decision-making. This problem applies particularly to countries with weak economies, such as small island states, where the most precious environmental resources are often concentrated. This paper discusses frameworks for a "least disappointing," approximate quantification of environmental vulnerability. After a review of recent research and recent attempts to quantify environmental vulnerability, we discuss models and theoretical frameworks for obtaining an approximate, standardizable vulnerability indicator of minimal subjectivity and maximum generality. We also discuss issues of empirical testing and comparability between indicators developed for different environments, To assess the state of the art, we describe an independent ongoing project developed in the South Pacific area and aimed to the comparative evaluation of the vulnerability of arbitrary countries.
  • Farber, S. C.; Costanza, R.; Wilson, M. A. (Ecological Economics, 2002
      The purpose of this special issue is to elucidate concepts of value and methods of valuation that will assist in guiding human decisions vis-a-vis ecosystems. The concept of ecosystem service value can be a useful guide when distinguishing and measuring where trade-offs between society and the rest of nature are possible and where they can be made to enhance human welfare in a sustainable manner. While win-win opportunities for human activities within the environment may exist, they also appear to be increasingly scarce in a 'full' global ecological-economic system. This makes valuation all the more essential for guiding future human activity. This paper provides some history, background, and context for many of the issues addressed by the remaining papers in this special issue. Its purpose is to place both economic and ecological meanings of value, and their respective valuation methods, in a comparative context, highlighting strengths, weakness and addressing questions that arise from their integration. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Farley, J.; Costanza, R. (Ecological Economics, 2002
      Economics has been defined as the science of allocation of scarce resources towards alternative ends. This definition implies that the first step in economic analysis is to determine what ends are desirable for society. Most sectors of the society would agree that sustainability is a desirable end, but there is little agreement as to what a sustainable future would look like. The University of Maryland Institute for Ecological Economics sponsored a democratic future search process designed to create a relatively detailed, shared vision of a sustainable and desirable USA in the year 2100. This paper presents the vision developed at that conference, examines the resources required to achieve the vision, and assesses the suitability of market mechanisms for allocating the required resources towards the desired ends. We find that markets are not efficient mechanisms for allocation in this case, and propose the institutions of a 'strong democracy' as a promising alternative. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Villa, F.; Wilson, M. A.; de Groot, R.; Farber, S.; Costanza, R.; Boumans, R. M. J. (Ecological Economics, 2002
      Quantifying the value of ecosystem services is important for the social recognition and acceptance of ecosystem management across multiple geographic scales. Yet, the data required to perform such quantifications and the dynamic models that allow the projection of policy changes into the future are currently scattered, incomplete, and difficult to use. We describe the design of the Ecosystem Services Database (ESD), an integrated, web-accessible knowledge base that links a relational database for temporally and spatially explicit data to dynamic simulation models. The ESD architecture supports unit standardization, scale translation in space and time, and statistical analysis. Process-based dynamic models and valuation methods can be run by end users either through a web-based simulation engine or on their own computers by means of open-source software. The knowledge base will serve as: (1) a communication tool for use by researchers in several fields; (2) an analytical tool for meta-analysis, synthesis, and prediction; (3) an educational tool to disseminate knowledge on ecosystem services and their valuation; (4) a collaborative tool for institutions involved in different aspects of ecosystem service valuation; and (5) a prototype for linking databases and dynamic models. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Herendeen, R. A.; Wildermuth, T. (Ecological Economics, 2002
      We develop three quantitative indicators of the physical/biological aspect of sustainability. They are based on depletion of resources, dependence on outside subsidies, and disruption of natural cycles. We apply the indicators to an agricultural county in Kansas, using energy, water, soil, and nitrogen as numeraires. 9/10 of Chase County is dedicated to range beef cattle grazing and 1/10 to row-cropping and confinement animal feeding. Range production is relatively non-depleting, independent, and non-disrupting. Cropping is more depleting, dependent, and disrupting, but comparable with that in other agricultural areas. We discuss how this pattern, mediated by absentee land-holding and low human population density, trades off against economic income. With the exception of energy, all analyses are only in terms of direct flows (e.g. actual amounts crossing the county boundary). For energy, we also estimate the energy consumed elsewhere to produce imported non-energy goods and services. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B,V. All rights reserved.
  • Limburg, K. E.; O'Neill, R. V.; Costanza, R.; Farber, S. (Ecological Economics, 2002
      Ecological and economic systems are undeniably complex. Whereas a goal of delineating 'ecosystem services' is to make readily apparent some of the important ways in which ecosystems underpin human welfare, insights are also gained by appreciating the nonlinear dynamic properties of ecosystems. In this paper, we review some of the relevant characteristics of complex systems. Ecosystems and economic systems share many properties, but valuation has typically been driven by short-term human preferences. Here we argue that as the force of humanity increases on the planet, ecosystem service valuation will need to switch from choosing among resources to valuing the avoidance of catastrophic ecosystem change. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

Search DSpace

Advanced Search


My Account