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  • Noordewier, Tom; Vermont. Dept. of Tourism and Marketing.,; University of Vermont. School of Business Administration.,; University of Vermont. Vermont Tourism Data Center., (2002
  • Koliba, C. J.; Mills, R. M.; Zia, A. (Public Administration Review, 2011
      What is the most effective framework for analyzing complex accountability challenges within governing networks? Recognizing the multiscale and intersector (public, private, and nonprofit) characteristics of these networks, an accountability model is advanced organized around democratic (elected representatives, citizens, and the legal system), market (owners and consumers), as well as administrative (bureaucratic, professional and collaborative) relationships. This concept draws from 2005 events following Hurricane Katrina. Multiple failures of governing networks to plan for and respond to Katrina include a breakdown in democratic, market, and administrative accountability as well as a pervasive confusion over trade-offs between accountability types emerging from crises. This essay offers several useful recommendations for emergency management planners as well as for those who teach and research.
  • Zia, A.; Koliba, C. (Journal of Comparative Policy Analysis, 2011
      How can accountability be institutionalized across complex governance networks that are dealing with the transboundary pollution problem of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions at multiple spatial, temporal and social scales? To address this question, we propose an accountability framework that enables comparison of the democratic, market and administrative anchorage of actor accountability within and across governance networks. A comparative analysis of performance measures in a sample of climate governance networks is undertaken. This comparative analysis identifies four critical performance management dilemmas in the areas of strategy, uncertain science, integration of multiple scales, and monitoring and verification of performance measures.
  • Smith, Pete; Wollenberg, Eva (2012
  • Hirsch, P. D.; Adams, W. M.; Brosius, J. P.; Zia, A.; Bariola, N.; Dammert, J. L. (Conservation Biology, 2011
      There is a growing recognition that conservation often entails trade-offs. A focus on trade-offs can open the way to more complete consideration of the variety of positive and negative effects associated with conservation initiatives. In analyzing and working through conservation trade-offs, however, it is important to embrace the complexities inherent in the social context of conservation. In particular, it is important to recognize that the consequences of conservation activities are experienced, perceived, and understood differently from different perspectives, and that these perspectives are embedded in social systems and preexisting power relations. We illustrate the role of trade-offs in conservation and the complexities involved in understanding them with recent debates surrounding REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation), a global conservation policy designed to create incentives to reduce tropical deforestation. Often portrayed in terms of the multiple benefits it may provide: poverty alleviation, biodiversity conservation, and climate-change mitigation; REDD may involve substantial trade-offs. The gains of REDD may be associated with a reduction in incentives for industrialized countries to decrease carbon emissions; relocation of deforestation to places unaffected by REDD; increased inequality in places where people who make their livelihood from forests have insecure land tenure; loss of biological and cultural diversity that does not directly align with REDD measurement schemes; and erosion of community-based means of protecting forests. We believe it is important to acknowledge the potential trade-offs involved in conservation initiatives such as REDD and to examine these trade-offs in an open and integrative way that includes a variety of tools, methods, and points of view.
  • Armitage, Derek R.; Plummer, Ryan; Berkes, Fikret; Arthur, Robert I.; Charles, Anthony T.; Davidson-Hunt, Iain J.; Diduck, Alan P.; Doubleday, Nancy C.; Johnson, Derek S.; Marschke, Melissa; McConney, Patrick; Pinkerton, Evelyn W.; Wollenberg, Eva K. (Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 2009
      Building trust through collaboration, institutional development, and social learning enhances efforts to foster ecosystem management and resolve multi-scale society-environment dilemmas. One emerging approach aimed at addressing these dilemmas is adaptive co-management. This method draws explicit attention to the learning ( experiential and experimental) and collaboration ( vertical and horizontal) functions necessary to improve our understanding of, and ability to respond to, complex social-ecological systems. Here, we identify and outline the core features of adaptive co-management, which include innovative institutional arrangements and incentives across spatiotemporal scales and levels, learning through complexity and change, monitoring and assessment of interventions, the role of power, and opportunities to link science with policy.
  • Mendez, V. Ernesto; Bacon, Christopher M.; Olson, Meryl; Morris, Katlyn S.; Shattuck, Annie (Professional Geographer, 2010
      We used households as the primary unit of analysis to synthesize agrobiodiversity research in small-scale coffee farms and cooperatives of Nicaragua and El Salvador. Surveys, focus groups, and plant inventories were used to analyze agrobiodiversity and its contribution to livelihoods. Households managed high levels of agrobiodiversity, including 100 shade tree and epiphyte species, food crops, and medicinals. Small farms contained higher levels of agrobiodiversity than larger, collectively managed cooperatives. Households benefited from agrobiodiversity through consumption and sales. To better support agrobiodiversity conservation, our analysis calls for a hybrid approach integrating bottom-up initiatives with the resources from top-down projects.
  • unknown (2004-02-02
      The Amateur Ski Club, founded by Roland Palmedo, one of the 5 ski clubs with on-mountain lodges. The ski clubs have always been at the core of the Mad River Glen community.
  • Galford, Gillian L.; Melillo, Jerry; Mustard, John F.; Cerri, Carlos E. P.; Cerri, Carlos C. (Earth Interactions, 2010
      The Brazilian Amazon is one of the most rapidly developing agricultural frontiers in the world. The authors assess changes in cropland area and the intensification of cropping in the Brazilian agricultural frontier state of Mato Grosso using remote sensing and develop a greenhouse gas emissions budget. The most common type of intensification in this region is a shift from single-to double-cropping patterns and associated changes in management, including increased fertilization. Using the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor, the authors created a green-leaf phenology for 2001-06 that was temporally smoothed with a wavelet filter. The wavelet-smoothed green-leaf phenology was analyzed to detect cropland areas and their cropping patterns. The authors document cropland extensification and double-cropping intensification validated with field data with 85% accuracy for detecting croplands and 64% and 89% accuracy for detecting single-and double-cropping patterns, respectively. The results show that croplands more than doubled from 2001 to 2006 to cover about 100 000 km(2) and that new double-cropping intensification occurred on over 20% of croplands. Variations are seen in the annual rates of extensification and double-cropping intensification. Greenhouse gas emissions are estimated for the period 2001-06 due to conversion of natural vegetation and pastures to row-crop agriculture in Mato Grosso averaged 179 Tg CO(2)-e yr(-1),over half the typical fossil fuel emissions for the country in recent years.
  • Binder, C.; Boumans, R. M.; Costanza, R. (Ecological Modelling, 2003
      Non-spatial dynamics are core to landscape simulations. Unit models simulate system interactions aggregated within one space unit of resolution used within a spatial model. For unit models to be applicable to spatial simulations they have to be formulated in a general enough way to simulate all habitat elements within the landscape. Within the Patuxent River watershed, human dominated land uses, such as agriculture and urban land, are already 50% of the current land use, while urban land is replacing forests. agriculture and wetlands at a rapid rate. The Patuxent Landscape Model (PLM) with the Patuxent General Unit Model as core (Pat-GEM) was developed as a predictive policy tool to estimate environmental impacts of such land use changes. The Pat-GEM is based on the General Ecosystem Model (GEM) developed by [Ecol. Modelling 88 1996 263]. Previous calibrations of the Pat-GEM for anthropogenic land uses have not been satisfactory due to the scarcity of appropriate data. This paper shows Pat-GEM simulations of biomass growth and nutrient uptake for crops typical within the Patuxent watershed. The Pat-GEM was expanded to include processes and fluxes that characterize agricultural land use. The most important extension was to include crop rotation into the model. Additionally, we refined the processes for planting, harvesting and fertilization by introducing specific growth parameters, Our revised Pat-GEM was calibrated against the results from Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator (EPIC) a widely used and calibrated agricultural model. We achieved high correlation between results generated with Pat-GEM and EPIC. The correlation coefficients (r(2)) varied between 0.87 and 0.98, with the simulation results for winter wheat showing the lowest correlation coefficients. Intercalibration using EPIC is a powerful method for calibrating the Pat-GEM model for agricultural land use. EPIC was able (a) to provide about 30% of the input data required for running the Pat-GEM model, and (b) to provide time series output data (with a daily time step) to calibrate the output variables biomass production and nutrient uptake. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Gowdy, J.; Erickson, J. D. (Cambridge Journal of Economics, 2005
      This paper discusses the major tenets of ecological economics-including value pluralism, methodological pluralism and multi-criteria policy assessment. Ecological economics offers viable alternatives to the theoretical foundations and policy recommendations of neoclassical welfare economics. A revolution in neoclassical economics is currently taking place, and the core assumptions of welfare economics are being replaced with more realistic models of consumer and firm behaviour. This paper argues that these new theoretical and empirical findings are largely ignored in applied work and policy applications in environmental economics. As the only heterodox school of economics focusing on the human economy both as a social system and as one imbedded in the biophysical universe, and thus both holistic and scientifically based, ecological economics is poised to play a leading role in recasting the scope and method of economic science.
  • Bacon, Christopher M.; Mendez, V. Ernesto; Flores Gomez, Maria Eugenia; Stuart, Douglas; Diaz Flores, Sandro Raul (Globalizations, 2008
      In December 2001, green coffee commodity prices hit a 30-year low. This deepened the livelihood crisis for millions of coffee farmers and rural communities. The specialty coffee industry responded by scaling up several sustainable coffee certification programs, including Fair Trade. This study uses household-and community-level research conducted in Nicaragua from 2000 to 2006 to assess the response to the post-1999 coffee crisis. A participatory action research team surveyed 177 households selling into conventional and Fair Trade markets in 2006. In an effort to dialogue with specialty coffee industry and mainstream development agencies, results are framed within the context of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. Findings suggest that households connected to Fair Trade cooperatives experienced several positive impacts in education, infrastructure investment, and monetary savings. However, several important livelihoods insecurities, including low incomes, high emigration, and food insecurity, persisted among all small-scale producers.
  • Luisa Martinez, M.; Feagin, Rusty A.; Yeager, Kevin M.; Day, John; Costanza, Robert; Harris, Jim A.; Hobbs, Richard J.; Lopez-Portillo, Jorge; Walker, Ian J.; Higgs, Eric; Moreno-Casasola, Patricia; Sheinbaum, Julio; Yanez-Arancibia, Alejandro (Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 2012
      The Deepwater Horizon oil spill threatened many coastal ecosystems in the Gulf of Mexico during the spring and summer of 2010. Mitigation strategies included the construction of barrier sand berms, the restriction or blocking of inlets, and the diversion of freshwater from rivers to the coastal marshes and into the ocean, in order to flush away the oil, on the premise that these measures could reduce the quantity of oil reaching sensitive coastal environments such as wetlands or estuaries. These projects result in changes to the ecosystems that they were intended to protect. Long-term effects include alterations of the hydrological and ecological characteristics of estuaries, changes in sediment transport along the coastal barrier islands, the loss of sand resources, and adverse impacts to benthic and pelagic organisms. Although there are no easy solutions for minimizing the impacts of the Deepwater Horizon disaster on coastal ecosystems, we recommend that federal, state, and local agencies return to the strategic use of long-term restoration plans for this region.
  • Troy, A. R.; Strong, A. M.; Bosworth, S. C.; Donovan, T. M.; Buckley, N. J.; Wilson, J. L. (Wildlife Society Bulletin, 2005
      In the northeastern United States, most populations of grassland songbirds occur on private lands. However, little information exists about the attitudes of farmers toward habitat management for this guild. To address this information gap, we surveyed 131 dairy farmers in Vermont's Champlain Valley to assess current hayfield management practices and farmers' willingness to adopt more "bird-friendly" practices. Our results showed a clear trend toward earlier and more frequent hayfield cuts. Farmers indicated they have little flexibility to alter the timing of their cuts on most of their land. However, many farmers (49%) indicated a willingness to adopt alternative management practices on at least a small portion of their land. Combined with the fact that many farmers characterized parts of their land as "wasteland," or economically unproductive land, this result suggests that some leeway exists for increasing songbird habitat quality on at least portions of dairy farms. Although significant differences existed in the amount of land for which farmers were willing to adopt alternative management based on herd size, acreage, and experience, the directionality of these relationships could not be established except tentatively for herd size, in which case it appeared that farmers with smaller herds were more likely to dedicate a greater percentage of their land to alternative management. The results of this study likely have relevance to dairy farms throughout the northern-tier dairy states. Given the increasing trend for agricultural land to be converted into housing, we recommend that extension and education efforts target farmers with large hayfield acreages, encouraging the maintenance of high-quality habitat for grassland songbirds.
  • Fisher, B. (Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 2007
  • Vermeulen, Sonja J.; Wollenberg, Eva K. (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2011
  • Wollenberg, Eva; Moeliono, Moira; Limberg, Godwin; Iwan, Ramses; Rhee, Steve; Sudana, Made (Forest Policy and Economics, 2006
      Decentralization in post-Soeharto Indonesia has not only changed state and society relations at the local level, but brought increased control over forests at the district level. Local social forces gained more influence because of their close relations with local government and acted to limit the local government. In this article we use the case of Malinau, East Kalimantan Indonesia to show how the new local autonomy over forests played a role in the rise of new local political orders. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • unknown (2004-02-02
      Mad River ski patroller, Bill Carnwright, showing his skiing prowess for a State of Vermont photo shoot
  • Costanza, Robert; Fisher, Brendan; Mulder, Kenneth; Liu, Shuang; Christopher, Treg (Ecological Economics, 2007
      Biodiversity (BD) and Net Primary Productivity (NPP) are intricately linked in complex ecosystems such that a change in the state of one of these variables can be expected to have an impact on the other. Using multiple regression analysis at the site and ecoregion scales in North America, we estimated relationships between BD (using plant species richness as a proxy) and NPP (as a proxy for ecosystem services). At the site scale, we found that 57% of the variation in NPP was correlated with variation in BD after effects of temperature and precipitation were accounted for. At the ecoregion scale, 3 temperature ranges were found to be important. At low temperatures (-2.1 degrees C average) BD was negatively correlated with NPP. At mid-temperatures (5.3 degrees C average) there was no correlation. At high temperatures (13 degrees C average) BD was positively correlated with NPP, accounting for approximately 26% of the variation in NPP after effects of temperature and precipitation were accounted for. The general conclusion of positive links between BD and ecosystem functioning from earlier experimental results in micro and mesocosms was qualified by our results, and strengthened at high temperature ranges. Our results can also be linked to estimates of the total value of ecosystem services to derive an estimate of the value of the biodiversity contribution to these services. We tentatively conclude from this that a 1% change in BD in the high temperature range (which includes most of the world's BD) corresponds to approximately a 1/2% change in the value of ecosystem services. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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