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  • Heleba, David (2005-01-20
      Hot air is forced through poly air tube to distribute air close to plants. Note that holes let air flow toward floor (and not up at plants which could cause uneven drying)
  • McMahon, Margaret (2004-10-18
      Bench heating system with bench removed
  • Heleba, David (2005-01-20
      This is a homemade under bench heating system similar to BioTherm® Benchwarmer system. The tubing is carburetor hose
  • Heleba, David (2005-01-14
      Natural gas fired forced hot air heating system used under benches keeps the warm air close to where it is needed. The poly tube directs hot air down the entire length of greenhouse and helps evenly distribute it.
  • Heleba, David (2005-01-27
      Under bench hot water heating systems put the heat right where it is needed. Water is piped from a central heating plant or boiler under the floor to individual benches. This "homemade" example has benches that can be turned off when bench is not in use.
  • Edwards, D. P.; Fisher, B.; Giam, X. L.; Wilcove, D. S. (Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 2011
  • Voinov, A.; Bromley, L.; Kirk, E.; Korchak, A.; Farley, J.; Moiseenko, T.; Krasovskaya, T.; Makarova, Z.; Megorski, V.; Selin, V.; Kharitonova, G.; Edson, R. (2004
      The Lake Imandra watershed is located in one of the most developed regions in the Arctic-the Kola Peninsula of Russia. Approximately 300 000 people live on the roughly 27 000 km(2) watershed, making it one of the most densely populated areas of the Arctic. Most of the people are involved in large-scale mineral extraction and processing and the infrastructure needed to support this industry. This paper reports the results of a pilot project staged for the Lake Imandra watershed that has put human dynamics within the framework of ecosystem change to integrate available information and formulate conceptual models of likely future scenarios. The observation period is one of both rapid economic growth and human expansion, with an overall economic decline in the past decade. We are applying the Participatory Integrated Assessment (PIA) approach to integrate information, identify information gaps, generate likely future scenarios, and link scientific findings to the decision-making process. We found an increasingly vulnerable human population in varying states of awareness about their local environment and fully cognizant of their economic troubles, with many determined to attempt maintenance of relatively high population densities in the near future even as many residents of northern Russia migrate south. A series of workshops have involved the citizens and local decision makers in an attempt to tap their knowledge of the region and to increase their awareness about the linkages between the socioeconomic and ecological components.
  • Smith, K. J.; Keeton, W. S.; Twery, M. J.; Tobi, D. R. (Canadian Journal of Forest Research-Revue Canadienne De Recherche Forestiere, 2008
      The understory layer encompasses the majority of plain species diversity ill forested ecosystems and may be sensitive to timber harvest disturbance. We hypothesize that (i) uneven-aged, low-intensity silvicultural systems can maintain understory plant diversity and support late-successional species following harvest disturbance; (ii) retaining and enhancing stand structural complexity can increase understory plant diversity in northern hardwood-conifer forests; and (iii) plant responses are influenced by interactions among canopy structure, soils, and climate processes. Experimental treatments include single-tree selection and group selection, both modified to increase structural retention, and a third technique designed to promote late-successional forest structure and function, structural complexity enhancement. Four replications of each treatment were applied to 2 ha units in Vermont and New York, USA. Understory vegetation was monitered 2 years pre- and 4 years post-treatment. Results show that over time, understory responses were strongly affected by overstory treatment and less influenced by soils and drought. All treatments succeeded at maintaining overall composition and diversity. However, late-successional diversity increased significantly in structural complexity enhancement units compared with group selection units. These results indicate that while conventional uneven-aged systems can maintain understory plant diversity, variations that retain or enhance structural complexity may be effective at retaining late-successional species.
  • Unknown author (2005-07-07
  • McMahon, Margaret (2005-11-21
      Availability of supplies in a greenhouse can be a problem, especially if those supplies must be kept dry. One clever way to store boxes is to hang a plastic trash container under a bench and put the needed items in them.
  • unknown (2004-02-02
      United Nations Delegates were invited to Mad River Glen several times during the early 1960s. These delegates are surveying the view from the top of the mountain during the 1964 UN Weekend.
  • McMahon, Peg (2005-10-21
      Whenever a unit heater is used in a greenhouse, it is crucial to make sure that the combustion gases generated by the heater are vented properly to the outside of the greenhouse.
  • Pearce, A. R.; Rizzo, D. M.; Watzin, M. C.; Druschel, G. K. (2013
      Exploratory data analysis on physical, chemical, and biological data from sediments and water in Lake Champlain reveals a strong relationship between cyanobacteria, sediment anoxia, and the ratio of dissolved nitrogen to soluble reactive phosphorus. Physical, chemical, and biological parameters of lake sediment and water were measured between 2007 and 2009. Cluster analysis using a self-organizing artificial neural network, expert opinion, and discriminant analysis separated the data set into no-bloom and bloom groups. Clustering was based on similarities in water and sediment chemistry and non-cyanobacteria phytoplankton abundance. Our analysis focused on the contribution of individual parameters to discriminate between no-bloom and bloom groupings. Application to a second, more spatially diverse data set, revealed similar no-bloom and bloom discrimination, yet a few samples possess all the physicochemical characteristics of a bloom without the high cyanobacteria cell counts, suggesting that while specific environmental conditions can support a bloom, another environmental trigger may be required to initiate the bloom. Results highlight the conditions coincident with cyanobacteria blooms in Missisquoi Bay of Lake Champlain and indicate additional data are needed to identify possible ecological contributors to bloom initiation.
  • Limburg, Karin E.; Stainbrook, Karen M.; Erickson, Jon D.; Gowdy, John M. (2005
      Parcel by parcel, urban/suburban development is one of the most active converters of land in the Hudson River Valley in New York State. We are taking an integrative approach to understanding the drivers of and responses to urbanization, by Studying how economy drives land use change and how that, in turn, affects downstream indicators of ecosystem state. The ultimate goal of the project is to provide a tool for policymakers, illustrating consequences of different development strategies. In this paper, we discuss synoptic ecological assessments of two major Hudson River tributaries in Dutchess County, the Wappinger Creek and Fishkill Creek watersheds. Physical, chemical, geographic, and biotic indices are compiled, creating a multivariate data set. These data, when set into a geographic information database, provide a spatial response to land use. Application of a regionally calibrated index of biotic integrity showed little relationship to urbanization, although some component metrics indicated a response. Chemical or biogeochemical indicators were more reflective of urbanization gradients. A hierarchy of responses, beginning with physicochemical and moving up to fish assemblages, reflected decreasing responses to urbanization. However, fish densities and the stable isotopic ratios of nitrogen determined in a sentinel species (eastern blacknose dace Rhinichthys atratulus) were significantly affected by urbanization. Longitudinal gradients of elevation were identified as strong drivers of development, potentially confounding relationships of land-use attributes and ecological responses.
  • Wang, Deane; Dorioz, Jean-Marcel; Trevisan, Dominique; Braun, DavidC; Windhausen, LisaJ; Vansteelant, Jean-Yves (Springer US, Waltham., 2004
      Diffuse pollution should be recognized as a landscape-level phenomenon. As such, it requires an observational approach consistent with the complex structure and function of the landscape system. We developed a landscape-level approach to study the transfer of phosphorus in rural areas of the Lake Champlain and Lac Léman basins. We began by developing a concept of P dynamics that captured some of the diversity and complexity of P movement through the land (transfer system). Given this initial concept of the diffuse pollution in the landscape, we adopted a synoptic watershed sampling strategy to begin the quantitative description of diffuse P pollution. Data from these types of studies were then analyzed using multiple regression to infer connections between activities on the land and phosphorus flux to surface waters. Our inferences include: 1) land cover determines phosphorus flux during high flow but not during low flows periods, 2) during high flow events, natural wetlands are a significant sink for diffuse phosphorus in surface waters, 3) fluxes and concentrations are higher when the basins are intensively plowed, 4) in the context of plowed areas, agricultural practices as opposed to land cover is a more important determinant of phosphorus flux in watersheds, and 5) the position of elements in the landscape is an important factor controlling diffuse phosphorus pollution. The method and basis for arriving at these conclusions are discussed. We suggest that synoptic sampling of water quality over extensive areas in a landscape, coupled with multiple regression to analyze relationships among P fluxes and landscape variables, is an appropriate tool for determining driving factors, analyzing the diversity of processes, and finding generality in complex landscape systems.
  • Luzadis, Valerie A; Volk, Timothy A; Buchholz, Thomas S (Renewable Energy from Forest Resources in the United States, 2008
      The current focus on sustainable development and the goal to move from a fossil fuel to a renewable-based economy brings with it the challenge of assessing the sustainability of the wide array of diff erent potential bioenergy systems. Concern about the impact of growing biomass for energy on food security in the poorest regions of the world intensifi es the need for reliable, manageable, comprehensive approaches to assessing the sustainability of biomass systems at all scales. Efforts to develop, implement, and revise criteria and indicators to assess the sustainability of forest management provide a foundation for building strong bioenergy sustainability assessment approaches. However, the forest management eff ort encompasses only one type of feedstock, woody biomass, from one source, naturally occurring forests. It also focuses on only one portion of bioenergy systems, biomass production. While discussion continues, no clear consensus has yet been reached for how to assess bioenergy sustainability. The assessment must focus on all components of the system, from biomass production through useful energy products, and encompass social and economic values. In this paper, we propose a systems approach to more comprehensively inform the development of sustainability criteria and indicators, and to synthesize the many insights from wide-ranging research on biomass-to-energy as well as the associated ranges of social and economic values. Specifically, we present a five-step process for how to use a participatory, systems approach to assess bioenergy sustainability. We suggest that this approach is more comprehensive than the dominant economy environment-social assessment approach, which is largely ad hoc in nature.
  • Fytilis, N.; Rizzo, D. M.; Lamb, R. D.; Kerans, B. L.; Stevens, L. (International Journal for Parasitology, 2013
      Aquatic oligochaetes have long been appreciated for their value in assessing habitat quality because they are ubiquitous sediment-dwelling filter feeders. Many oligochaete taxa are also important in the transmission of fish diseases. Distinguishing resistant and susceptible taxa is important for managing fish disease, yet challenging in practice. Tubifex tubifex (Oligochaeta: Tubificidae) is the definitive host for the complex life-cycle parasite, Myxobolus cerebralis, the causative agent of salmonid whirling disease. We developed two hydrolysis probe-based qualitative real-time PCR (qPCR) multiplex assays that distinguish among tubificid taxa collected from the Madison River, Montana, USA. The first assay distinguishes T. tubifex from Rhyacodrilus spp.; while the second classifies T. tubifex identified by the first assay into two genetic lineages (I and III). Specificity and sensitivity were optimized for each assay; the two assays showed specificity of 94.3% and 98.6% for the target oligochaetes, respectively. DNA sequencing verified the results. The development of these assays allowed us to more fully describe tubificid community composition (the taxa and their abundance at a site) and estimate the relative abundances of host taxa. To relate tubificid relative abundance to fish disease risk, we determined M. cerebralis infection prevalence in samples identified as T. tubifex using similar molecular techniques. Given prior information (i.e., morphological identification of sexually mature worms), Bayesian analysis inferred that the first qPCR assay improved taxonomic identification. Bayesian inference of the relative abundance of T. tubifex, combined with infection assay results, identified sites with a high prevalence of infected T. tubifex. To our knowledge, this study represents both the first assessment of oligochaete community composition using a qPCR assay based on fluorescent probes and the first use of Bayesian analysis to fully characterize the dominant infected taxa in streams where whirling disease is observed. (C) 2013 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • McMahon, Peg (2006-04-25
      During peak production times, greenhouse corridors can be used to grow or hold crops. This is an efficient use of space as long as the corridor has appropriate environmental controls.
  • Tignor, Milton (2005-03-18
      Utility cart (in distance) on heat pipe track system.
  • Unknown author (2005-06-07

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