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  • Costanza, R.; Fisher, B.; Ali, S.; Beer, C.; Bond, L.; Boumans, R.; Danigelis, N. L.; Dickinson, J.; Elliott, C.; Farley, J.; Gayer, D. E.; Glenn, L. M.; Hudspeth, T.; Mahoney, D.; McCahill, L.; McIntosh, B.; Reed, B.; Rizvi, S. A. T.; Rizzo, D. M.; Simpatico, T.; Snapp, R. (Ecological Economics, 2007
      Enhancing Quality of Life (QOL) has long been an explicit or implicit goal for individuals, communities, nations, and the world. But defining QOL and measuring progress toward meeting this goal have been elusive. Diverse "objective" and "subjective" indicators across a range of disciplines and scales, and recent work on subjective well-being (SWB) surveys and the psychology of happiness have spurred interest. Drawing from multiple disciplines, we present an integrative definition of QOL that combines measures of human needs with subjective well-being or happiness. QOL is proposed as a multi-scale, multi-dimensional concept that contains interacting objective and subjective elements. We relate QOL to the opportunities that are provided to meet human needs in the forms of built, human, social and natural capital (in addition to time) and the policy options that are available to enhance these opportunities. Issues related to defining, measuring, and scaling these concepts are discussed, and a research agenda is elaborated. Policy implications include strategies for investing in opportunities to maximize QOL enhancement at the individual, community, and national scales. (c) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Beard, K. H.; Wang, D.; Waite, C. E.; Decker, K. L. M.; Hawley, G. J.; DeHayes, D. D.; Hughes, J. W.; Cumming, J. R. (Ecosystems, 2005
      The complexity of natural ecosystems makes it difficult to compare the relative importance of abiotic and biotic factors and to assess the effects of their interactions on ecosystem development. To improve our understanding of ecosystem complexity, we initiated an experiment designed to quantify the main effects and interactions of several factors that are thought to affect nutrient export from developing forest ecosystems. Using a replicated 2 x 2 x 4 factorial experiment, we quantified the main effects of these factors and the factor interactions on annual calcium, magnesium, and potassium export from field mesocosms over 4 years for two Vermont locations, two soils, and four different tree seedling communities. We found that the main effects explained 56%-97% of total variation in nutrient export. Abiotic factors (location and soil) accounted for a greater percentage of the total variation in nutrient export (47%-94%) than the biotic factor (plant community) (2%-15%). However, biotic control over nutrient export was significant, even when biomass was minimal. Factor interactions were often significant, but they explained less of the variation in nutrient export (1%-33%) than the main effects. Year-to-year fluctuations influenced the relative importance of the main effects in determining nutrient export and created factor interactions between most of the explanatory variables. Our study suggests that when research is focused on typically used main effects, such as location and soil, and interactions are aggregated into overall error terms, important information about the factors controlling ecosystem processes can be lost.
  • Xu, Y. Y.; Schroth, A. W.; Isles, P. D. F.; Rizzo, D. M. (Freshwater Biology, 2015
      Although commonly used by those tasked with lake management, the statistical approach of data averaging (DA) followed by ordinary least-squares regression (OLSR) to generate nutrient limitation models is outdated and may impede the understanding and successful management of lake eutrophication. Using a 21-year data set from Lake Champlain as a case study, the traditional DA-OLSR-coupled approach was re-evaluated and improved to quantify the cause-effect relationships between chlorophyll (Chl) and total nitrogen (TN) or total phosphorus (TP). We confirmed that the commonly used DA-OLSR approach results in misleading cause-effect nutrient limitation inferences by illustrating how the process of DA reduces the range of data distribution considered and masks meaningful temporal variation observed within a given period. Our model comparisons demonstrate that using quantile regression (QR) to fit the upper boundary of the response distribution (99th quantile model) is more robust than the OLSR analysis for generating eutrophication models and developing nutrient management targets, as this method reduces the effects of unmeasured factors that plague the OLSR-derived model. Because our approach is statistically in line with the ecological law of the minimum', it is particularly powerful for inferring resource limitation with broad potential utility to the ecological research community. By integrating percentile selection (PS) with QR-derived model output, we developed a PS-QR-coupled approach to quantify the relative importance of TN and TP reductions in a eutrophic system. Utilising this approach, we determined that the reduction in TP to meet a specific Chl target should be the first priority to mitigate eutrophication in Lake Champlain. The structure of this statistically robust and straightforward approach for developing nutrient reduction targets can be easily adopted as an individual lake-specific tool for the research and management of other lakes and reservoirs with similar water quality data sets. Moreover, the PS-QR-coupled approach developed here is also of theoretical importance to understanding and modelling the interacting effects of multiple limiting factors on ecological processes (e.g. eutrophication) with broad application to aquatic research.
  • Zia, A.; Norton, B. G.; Noonan, D. S.; Rodgers, M. O.; DeHart-Davis, L. (Transportation Research Part D-Transport and Environment, 2006
      A quasi-experimental evaluation is employed to assess the compliance behavior of high emitters in response to Atlanta's Inspection and Maintenance program between 1997 and 2001 and to predict the impact of compliance behavior on vehicular tailpipe emissions of ozone precursors, such as carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxide. Remote sensing data of a sample of approximately 0.8 million observations of on-road vehicles are matched with IM program data and vehicle registration data to identify the compliant and non-compliant high emitters. A mixed-pool time-series regression analysis is carried out to predict changes in the vehicular tailpipe emissions due to the compliance and non-compliance of the high emitters in the Atlanta airshed. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • McMahon, Peg (2005-10-21
      Many quonset style greenhouses have a double layer of polyethylene film for the roof and double-walled polycarbonate panels for the end walls.
  • Heleba, David (2004-11-24
      image of rack and pinion mechanism used to open ridge or side vents. Note metal drive shaft through pinion gear that attachs to motor (not shown)
  • Rayburn, Lisa; Tignor, Buddy (2006-04-10
      The flora of the Southern Appalachians is among the most diverse in the Western hemisphere. Project Branch Out is designed to both preserve and profit from this extremely diverse flora by producing for sale plants that have been under intense pressure from wild harvest. Project Branch Out is the greenhouse component of EnergyXchange. Our greenhouses are heated with boiler water circulating through radiant heat flooring. Boilers are powered by landfill gas. In the greenhouses we propagate native ornamentals like rhododendrons, azaleas, and others. Project Branch Out also includes a demonstration site for aquaponic production. If you have any further questions about Project Branch Out please contact Lisa Rayburn, Nursery Production coordinator: Lisa@EnergyXchange.org.
  • Wilson, Sandra (2006-03-23
      Shown is large storage tank used to capture rainfall for irrigation of floriculture foliage crops.
  • Golev, A.; Scott, M.; Erskine, P. D.; Ali, S. H.; Ballantyne, G. R. (Resources Policy, 2014
      The unique properties of rare earth elements (REEs) and lack of alternatives for their application in modern technologies, especially electronics and fast growing green technologies such as renewable energy generation and storage, energy efficient lights, electric cars, and auto catalysts, as well as specific military and aerospace applications, underpin their strategic status. The absolute domination of China in the production of REEs, aggravated by a significant reduction in export quotas since 2010, raised severe concerns of securing REE supply in the USA, Japan, European Union and other countries. In 2010-2012 it resulted in skyrocketing prices and supply deficit for most REEs, leading to numerous new REE start-up companies around the world, with allocation of large investments in additional geological explorations and technology development. At the same time, the supply difficulties enforced the downstream users of REEs to invest in the development of recycling technologies and reuse options for these elements. The main focus of this paper is to overview existing and emerging REE supply chains outside of China up to date (end of 2013), define their environmental constraints and opportunities, as well as reflect on a broader range of technical, economic, and social challenges for both primary production and recycling of REEs. A better understanding of these factors could help to optimize the supply chain of virgin and recycled rare earths, minimise the environmental impacts arising from their processing, and be used as a prototype for a broader range of critical metals and commodities. (c) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Roman, J., Kraska, J. (Science, 2016
      What to do with Gitmo after it closes? “Reboot it,” says Joe Roman, an oceans expert in UVM’s Gund Institute — “for research diplomacy.” In Science magazine, Roman and a U.S. Naval War College scholar make the case for Guantanamo 2.0 as a way to improve conservation in the Caribbean — and build cooperation between the U.S. and Cuba. (Photo: Corbis)
  • Voinov, A.; Farley, J. (Ecological Economics, 2007
      Most definitions of sustainability imply that a system is to be maintained at a certain level, held within certain limits, into the indefinite future. Sustainability denies run-away growth, but it also avoids any decline or destruction. This sustainability path is hard to reconcile with the renewal cycle that can be observed in many natural systems developing according to their intrinsic mechanisms and in social systems responding to internal and external pressures. Systems are parts of hierarchies where systems of higher levels are made up of subsystems from lower levels. Renewal in components is an important factor of adaptation and evolution. If a system is sustained for too long, it borrows from the sustainability of a supersystern and rests upon lack of sustainability in subsystems. Therefore by sustaining certain systems beyond their renewal cycle, we decrease the sustainability of larger, higher-level systems. For example, Schumpeter's theory of creative destruction posits that in a capitalist economy, the collapse and renewal of firms and industries is necessary to sustain the vitality of the larger economic system. However, if the capitalist economic system relies on endless growth, then sustaining it for too long will inevitably borrow from the sustainability of the global ecosystem. This could prove catastrophic for humans and other species. To reconcile sustainability with hierarchy theory, we must decide which hierarchical level in a system we want to sustain indefinitely, and accept that lower level subsystems must have shorter life spans. In economic analysis, inter-temporal discount rates essentially tell us how long we should care about sustaining any given system. Economists distinguish between discount rates for individuals based on personal time preference, lower discount rates for firms based on the opportunity cost of capital, and even lower discount rates for society. For issues affecting even higher-level systems, such as global climate change, many economists question the suitability of discounting future values at all. We argue that to reconcile sustainability with inter-temporal discounting, discount rates should be determined by the hierarchical level of the system being analyzed. (C) 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Danks, C., M. Goebel, and K. Steer (Greenleaf Publishing, Sheffield, UK.Sheffield, UK, 2003
  • Unknown author (2005-06-07
  • Farquhar, George (UVM Theatre, 1967
  • Farquhar, George (UVM Theatre, 1967
  • Farquhar, George (UVM Theatre, 1967
  • Farquhar, George (UVM Theatre, 1967
  • Farquhar, George (UVM Theatre, 1967
  • Farquhar, George (UVM Theatre, 1967

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