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  • Farley, J. (Berkshire Publishing, Gt Barrington, MA.Gt Barrington, MA, 2012
  • Guerry, A. D.; Polasky, S.; Lubchenco, J.; Chaplin-Kramer, R.; Daily, G. C.; Griffin, R.; Ruckelshaus, M.; Bateman, I. J.; Duraiappah, A.; Elmqvist, T.; Feldman, M. W.; Folke, C.; Hoekstra, J.; Kareiva, P. M.; Keeler, B. L.; Li, S. Z.; McKenzie, E.; Ouyang, Z. Y.; Reyers, B.; Ricketts, T. H.; Rockstrom, J.; Tallis, H.; Vira, B. (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2015
      The central challenge of the 21st century is to develop economic, social, and governance systems capable of ending poverty and achieving sustainable levels of population and consumption while securing the life-support systems underpinning current and future human well-being. Essential to meeting this challenge is the incorporation of natural capital and the ecosystem services it provides into decision-making. We explore progress and crucial gaps at this frontier, reflecting upon the 10 y since the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. We focus on three key dimensions of progress and ongoing challenges: raising awareness of the interdependence of ecosystems and human well-being, advancing the fundamental interdisciplinary science of ecosystem services, and implementing this science in decisions to restore natural capital and use it sustainably. Awareness of human dependence on nature is at an all-time high, the science of ecosystem services is rapidly advancing, and talk of natural capital is now common from governments to corporate boardrooms. However, successful implementation is still in early stages. We explore why ecosystem service information has yet to fundamentally change decision-making and suggest a path forward that emphasizes: (i) developing solid evidence linking decisions to impacts on natural capital and ecosystem services, and then to human well-being; (ii) working closely with leaders in government, business, and civil society to develop the knowledge, tools, and practices necessary to integrate natural capital and ecosystem services into everyday decision-making; and (iii) reforming institutions to change policy and practices to better align private short-term goals with societal long-term goals.
  • Kareiva, P.; Tallis, H.; Ricketts, T.; Daily, G. C.; Polasky, S. (Oxford University Press, New York.New York, 2011
      In 2005, The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MA) provided the first global assessment of the world's ecosystems and ecosystem services. It concluded that recent trends in ecosystem change threatened human wellbeing due to declining ecosystem services. This bleak prophecy has galvanized conservation organizations, ecologists, and economists to work toward rigorous valuations of ecosystem services at a spatial scale and with a resolution that can inform public policy.The editors have assembled the world's leading scientists in the fields of conservation, policy analysis, and resource economics to provide the most intensive and best technical analyses of ecosystem services to date. A key idea that guides the science is that the modelling and valuation approaches being developed should use data that are readily available around the world. In addition, the book documents a toolbox of ecosystem service mapping, modeling, and valuation models that both TheNature Conservancy and the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) are beginning to apply around the world as they transform conservation from a biodiversity only to a people and ecosystem services agenda. The book addresses land, freshwater, and marine systems at a variety of spatial scales and includesdiscussion of how to treat both climate change and cultural values when examining tradeoffs among ecosystem services.
  • Hart, S. L.; Dowell, G. (Journal of ManagementJ. Manag., 2011
      The authors revisit Hart's natural-resource-based view (NRBV) of the firm and summarize progress that has been made in testing elements of that theory and reevaluate the NRBV in light of a number of important developments that have emerged in recent years in both the resource-based view literature and in research on sustainable enterprise. First, the authors consider how the NRBV can both benefit from recent work in dynamic capabilities and can itself inform such work. Second, they review recent research in the areas of clean technology and business at the base of the pyramid and suggest how the NRBV can help inform research on the resources and capabilities needed to enter and succeed in these domains.
  • Wilcove, David S.; Giam, Xingli; Edwards, David P.; Fisher, Brendan; Koh, Lian Pin (Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 2013
  • Wilson, Sandra (2006-05-15
      Production space is maximized with hanging baskets of Nephrolepis and Yucca growing on floor.
  • Mika, Anna M.; Keeton, William S. (GCB Bioenergy, 2014
      The long-term greenhouse gas emissions implications of wood biomass (‘bioenergy’) harvests are highly uncertain yet of great significance for climate change mitigation and renewable energy policies. Particularly uncertain are the net carbon (C) effects of multiple harvests staggered spatially and temporally across landscapes where bioenergy is only one of many products. We used field data to formulate bioenergy harvest scenarios, applied them to 362 sites from the Forest Inventory and Analysis database, and projected growth and harvests over 160 years using the Forest Vegetation Simulator. We compared the net cumulative C fluxes, relative to a non-bioenergy baseline, between scenarios when various proportions of the landscape are harvested for bioenergy: 0% (non-bioenergy); 25% (BIO25); 50% (BIO50); or 100% (BIO100), with three levels of intensification. We accounted for C stored in aboveground forest pools and wood products, direct and indirect emissions from wood products and bioenergy, and avoided direct and indirect emissions from fossil fuels. At the end of the simulation period, although 82% of stands were projected to maintain net positive C benefit, net flux remained negative (i.e., net emissions) compared to non-bioenergy harvests for the entire 160-year simulation period. BIO25, BIO50, and BIO100 scenarios resulted in average annual emissions of 2.47, 5.02, and 9.83 Mg C ha−1, respectively. Using bioenergy for heating decreased the emissions relative to electricity generation as did removing additional slash from thinnings between regeneration harvests. However, all bioenergy scenarios resulted in increased net emissions compared to the non-bioenergy harvests. Stands with high initial aboveground live biomass may have higher net emissions from bioenergy harvest. Silvicultural practices such as increasing rotation length and structural retention may result in lower C fluxes from bioenergy harvests. Finally, since passive management resulted in the greatest net C storage, we recommend designation of unharvested reserves to offset emissions from harvested stands.
  • Muller, Keona (2006-04-03
      Benches under construction with wire mesh tops.
  • Lyman, M. W.; Danks, C.; McDonough, M. (Conservation & Society, 2013
      This paper examines the ways in which some forms of community forests in the northeastern United States could be considered Indigenous Peoples' and Community Conserved Territories and Areas (ICCAs), based on the work conducted by the Community Forest Collaborative, a partnership of four non-governmental organisations (NGOs) in the US. The Collaborative defined a Community Forest Model for northern New England, conducted research on the economic, social, community, and conservation values of the Community Forest Model and developed case studies on five community forest projects. Five key attributes of ICCAs were selected and used to compare with characteristics of the Collaborative's Community Forest Model. The results conclude that the Community Forest Model is very consistent and compatible with the characteristics of ICCAs, defined by Kothari (2006), and further, that there would be benefits both to community forests in New England as well as to other ICCAs to include the Community Forest Model as an example of an ICCA.
  • Muller, Keona (2006-04-03
      Site preparation is being done for the next greenhouse range as another is under construction. Bench legs can be seen leaning along endwall.
  • Parrish, Jennifer (2006-04-03
      Small orchid plantlets recently removed from tissue culture are planted into propagation trays.
  • McMahon, Peg (2006-04-25
      These cuttings have just been stuck in trays of media. They are about to be placed under mist for rooting.
  • Villa, F.; Voigt, B.; Erickson, J. D. (Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, 2014
      As societal demand for food, water and other life-sustaining resources grows, the science of ecosystem services (ES) is seen as a promising tool to improve our understanding, and ultimately the management, of increasingly uncertain supplies of critical goods provided or supported by natural ecosystems. This promise, however, is tempered by a relatively primitive understanding of the complex systems supporting ES, which as a result are often quantified as static resources rather than as the dynamic expression of human-natural systems. This article attempts to pinpoint the minimum level of detail that ES science needs to achieve in order to usefully inform the debate on environmental securities, and discusses both the state of the art and recent methodological developments in ES in this light. We briefly review the field of ES accounting methods and list some desiderata that we deem necessary, reachable and relevant to address environmental securities through an improved science of ES. We then discuss a methodological innovation that, while only addressing these needs partially, can improve our understanding of ES dynamics in data-scarce situations. The methodology is illustrated and discussed through an application related to water security in the semi-arid landscape of the Great Ruaha river of Tanzania.
  • McMahon, Peg (2006-07-13
      One way to create a niche market is to "tap into" issues that appeal to the public. In this case, the sign shows how the greenhouse plants are improving the environment and air quality.
  • Blakeslee, A.; Roman, J. (Journal of Shellfish ResearchJ. Shellfish Res., 2015
  • Ruckelshaus, M.; McKenzie, E.; Tallis, H.; Guerry, A.; Daily, G.; Kareiva, P.; Polasky, S.; Ricketts, T.; Bhagabati, N.; Wood, S. A.; Bernhardt, J. (Ecological Economics, 2015
      While there have been rapid advances in assessments of biodiversity and ecosystem services (BES), a critical remaining challenge is how to move from scientific knowledge to real-world decision making. We offer 6 lessons from our experiences applying new approaches and tools for quantifying BES in 20 pilot demonstrations: (1) Applying a BES approach is most effective in leading to policy change as part of an iterative science-policy process; (2) simple ecological production function models have been useful in a diverse set of decision contexts, across abroad range of biophysical, social, and governance systems. Key limitations of simple models arise at very small scales, and in predicting specific future BES values; (3) training local experts in the approaches and tools is important for building local capacity, ownership, trust, and long-term success; (4) decision makers and stake-holders prefer to use a variety of BES value metrics, not only monetary values; (5) an important science gap exists in linking changes in BES to changes in livelihoods, health, cultural values, and other metrics of human wellbeing; and (6) communicating uncertainty in useful and transparent ways remains challenging. 2013 The Authors. (C) Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Ruckelshaus, Mary; McKenzie, Emily; Tallis, Heather; Guerry, Anne; Daily, Gretchen; Kareiva, Peter; Polasky, Stephen; Ricketts, Taylor; Bhagabati, Nirmal; Wood, Spencer A.; Bernhardt, Joanna (Ecological Economics, 2013
      While there have been rapid advances in assessments of biodiversity and ecosystem services (BES), a critical remaining challenge is how to move from scientific knowledge to real-world decision making. We offer 6 lessons from our experiences applying new approaches and tools for quantifying BES in 20 pilot demonstrations: (1) Applying a BES approach is most effective in leading to policy change as part of an iterative science-policy process; (2) simple ecological production function models have been useful in a diverse set of decision contexts, across a broad range of biophysical, social, and governance systems. Key limitations of simple models arise at very small scales, and in predicting specific future BES values; (3) training local experts in the approaches and tools is important for building local capacity, ownership, trust, and long-term success; (4) decision makers and stakeholders prefer to use a variety of BES value metrics, not only monetary values; (5) an important science gap exists in linking changes in BES to changes in livelihoods, health, cultural values, and other metrics of human wellbeing; and (6) communicating uncertainty in useful and transparent ways remains challenging.
  • McMahon, Margaret (2004-10-18
      Unusual greenhouse (used in garden setting)
  • Wilson, Sandra (2006-03-21
      Surface water runoff from irrigation and rain events are collected to be reused at Vannucci Piante Nursery which has 115 hectares of above-ground container production of large trees and shrubs.

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