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  • Wollenberg, E.; Iwan, R.; Limberg, G.; Moeliono, M.; Rhee, S.; Sudana, M. (Ecology and Society, 2007
      Adaptive management has become increasingly common where natural resource managers face complex and uncertain conditions. The collaboration required among managers and others to do adaptive management, however, is not always easy to achieve. We describe efforts to work with villagers and government officials in Malinau, East Kalimantan Indonesia, where a weak, uncertain institutional setting and complex shifting political landscape made formal cooperation among these groups for forest management problematic. Through successive trials, the team learned instead to work with and enhance a "spontaneous order" of cooperation using four tactics: (1) continuous physical presence, (2) regular contact with the people who advised and were close to major decision makers, (3) maintenance of multiple programs to fit the needs of different interest groups, and (4) hyperflexibility in resource allocation and schedules.
  • Roman, J.; Ehrlich, P. E.; Pringle, R.; Avise, J. A. (Solutions, 2010
      Human history has followed a pattern—which began in Africa but is now global in scope—of exploiting nature and depleting resources. As we have expanded our influence over the world, we have also extinguished species and populations at an alarming rate. Despite attempts to reduce biodiversity loss, the trend is likely to continue: nearly 20% of all humans—more than a billion—now live within biodiversity hotspots, and their growth rate is faster than the population at large. This article presents nine steps to reduce biodiversity loss, with a goal of categorizing human-caused extinctions as wrongs, such as the slave trade and child labor, that are unacceptable to society. These steps include developing a system of parks that highlight the planet’s biological legacy, much as historical landmarks celebrate human history. Legal prohibitions that are fairly and capably enforced will also be essential in protecting rare and declining species. Biodiversity endowments—from national governments, nongovernmental organizations, and private enterprises—can help support parks and native species in perpetuity. Like a good sports team, conservationists need to defend extant wilderness areas, but they also need to play offense by restoring ecosystems, reclaiming keystone and umbrella species, and making human landscapes more hospitable to biodiversity. In the long run, the most effective forms of conservation will be those that engage local stakeholders; the cultivation of sustainable ecosystems and their services must be promoted along with conservation of endangered species and populations. The emerging field of ecological economics can unite these goals by revealing the connections between human well-being and conservation.
  • Burgess, N. D.; Hales, J. D.; Ricketts, T. H.; Dinerstein, E. (Biological Conservation, 2006
      Biodiversity in Africa, Madagascar and smaller surrounding islands is both globally extraordinary and increasingly threatened. However, to date no analyses have effectively integrated species values (e.g., richness, endemism) 'non-species' values (e.g., migrations, intact assemblages), and threats into a single assessment of conservation priorities. We present such an analysis for the 119 ecoregions of Africa, Madagascar and smaller islands. Biodiversity is not evenly distributed across Africa and patterns vary somewhat among taxonomic groups. Analyses of most vertebrates (i.e., birds, mammals, amphibians) tend to identify one set of priority ecoregions, while plants, reptiles, and invertebrates highlight additional areas. 'Non-species' biological values are not correlated with species measures and thus indicate another set of ecoregions. Combining species and non-species values is therefore crucial for assembling a comprehensive portfolio of conservation priorities across Africa. Threats to biodiversity are also unevenly distributed across Africa. We calculate a synthetic threat index using remaining habitat, habitat block size, degree of habitat fragmentation, coverage within protected areas, human population density, and the extinction risk of species. This threat index is positively correlated with all three measures of biological value (i.e., richness, endemism, non-species values), indicating that threats tend to be focused on the region's most important areas for biodiversity. Integrating biological values with threats allows identification of two distinct sets of ecoregion priority. First, highly imperilled ecoregions with many narrow endemic species that require focused actions to prevent the loss of further habitat leading to the extinction of narrowly distributed endemics. Second, less threatened ecoregions that require maintenance of large and well-connected habitats that will support large-scale habitat processes and associated area-demanding species. By bringing these data together we can be much more confident that our set of conservation recommendations serves the needs of biodiversity across Africa, and that the contribution of different agencies to achieving African conservation can be firmly measured against these priorities. (c) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Mika, A. M.; Keeton, W. S. (Global Change Biology Bioenergy, 2013
      With growing interest in wood bioenergy there is uncertainty over greenhouse gas emissions associated with offsetting fossil fuels. Although quantifying postharvest carbon (C) fluxes will require accurate data, relatively few studies have evaluated these using field data from actual bioenergy harvests. We assessed C reductions and net fluxes immediately postharvest from whole-tree harvests (WTH), bioenergy harvests without WTH, and nonbioenergy harvests at 35 sites across the northeastern United States. We compared the aboveground forest C in harvested with paired unharvested sites, and analyzed the C transferred to wood products and C emissions from energy generation from harvested sites, including indirect emissions from harvesting, transporting, and processing. All harvests reduced live tree C; however, only bioenergy harvests using WTH significantly reduced C stored in snags (P<0.01). On average, WTH sites also decreased downed coarse woody debris C while the other harvest types showed increases, although these results were not statistically significant. Bioenergy harvests using WTH generated fewer wood products and resulted in more emissions released from bioenergy than the other two types of harvests, which resulted in a greater net flux of C (P<0.01). A Classification and Regression Tree analysis determined that it was not the type of harvest or amount of bioenergy generated, but rather the type of skidding machinery and specifics of silvicultural treatment that had the largest impact on net C flux. Although additional research is needed to determine the impact of bioenergy harvesting over multiple rotations and at landscape scales, we conclude that operational factors often associated with WTH may result in an overall intensification of C fluxes. The intensification of bioenergy harvests, and subsequent C emissions, that result from these operational factors could be reduced if operators select smaller equipment and leave a portion of tree tops on site.
  • Thetford, Mack; Davies, Fred; Wilson, Sandra (The University of Florida, 2002
      Mack Thetford and Fred Davies discuss the current understanding of the best practices that are required for propagating woody cuttings. Current knowledge and industry needs are covered.
  • Tignor, Milton (2004-08-11
      Tim and Janet Taylor left their positions as an attorney and teacher over 20 years ago to do something different. They both wanted to do something with the land and their hands. Although it wasn't always easy, they managed to turn hardwork and persistence into a successful, sustainable, and profitable business.
  • Farley, J.; Schmitt F., A. L.; Alvez, J. P.; Rebola, P. M. (Advances in Animal Biosciences, 2012
  • Berik, G.; Rodgers, Y. V.; Seguino, S. (Feminist Economics, 2009
      This study examines connections between intergroup inequality and macroeconomic outcomes, considering various channels through which gender, growth, and development interact. It upholds the salience not only of equality in opportunities but also equality in outcomes. The contribution argues that inequalities based on gender, race, ethnicity, and class undermine the ability to provision and expand capabilities, and it examines the macroeconomic policies that are likely to promote broadly shared development. It explores how the macroeconomy acts as a structure of constraint in achieving gender equality and in turn how gender relations in areas like education and wage gaps can have macro-level impacts. Further, it underscores that the interaction of the macroeconomy and gender relations depends on the structure of the economy, the nature of job segregation, the particular measure of gender inequality, and a country's international relations. Finally, it outlines policies for promoting gender equality as both an intrinsic goal and a step toward improving well-being.
  • Wilson, Sandra (2005-12-22
      Fern spores are "sown" and placed in climate controlled growth chamber.
  • Wilson, Sandra (2006-03-23
      Shading for this fern house was constructed out of bamboo. Fern foliage production is for cut flower arrangements. With exceptional climate, San Remo is the heart of Italy’s flower growing region.
  • Tignor, Milton (2005-03-18
      soluble fertilizers are mixed in large stock tanks.
  • Dizzia, Lee (2005-01-28
      These field greenhouses in Vermont will be skinned (poly layer put on) later in the year as the snow melts.
  • Fisher, B.; Naidoo, R.; Ricketts, T. (W. H. Freeman, Cheltenham, U.K.., 2014
  • Wilson, Sandra (2005-04-21
      Final hand sorting of orchids for finishing in pots for market.
  • Wilson, Sandra (2005-06-07
      Dormant budded and ready-to-force azaleas are shipped ship year-round. No one else ships fresh azaleas 52 weeks a year.
  • McMahon, Peg (2005-10-21
      By adding fins to a heat pipe, there is more area for heat loss from the pipe, thereby increasing the amount of heat going into a greenhouse.
  • Tignor, Milton (2004-10-25
      Steam heating pipes. Stack of three with fins. Curtainwall visible.
  • Keeton, William S.; Franklin, Jerry F. (Canadian Journal of Forest ResearchCanadian Science Publishing, New York., 2004
      The spatial distribution of biological legacies left by natural disturbances is an important source of variability in forest development. We investigated one type of biological legacy: remnant old-growth trees persisting in mature Douglas-fir forests. We hypothesized that persistence varies with topographic heterogeneity influencing fire behavior. Our two study areas are located in the southern Washington Cascade Range, USA. They have an unfragmented, mature forest cover that regenerated following wildfire. We mapped all remnant old-growth trees (live and dead) within 4.2–6.4 km long belt transects. Digital elevation models were used to generate convergent and divergent landform classes. Frequency analysis was used to test for landform associations. Live remnant western hemlock and western redcedar were strongly associated with convergent landforms and aspects that had greater availability of soil moisture. Live remnant Douglas-fir were most abundant, but were not correlated with convergence or divergence, although certain landforms had higher concentrations. Remnant snags were abundant across convergent and divergent landforms. We conclude that species with low fire resistance survive most frequently on landforms that have a dampening effect on fire intensity. Topographic variability may indirectly influence ecological functions associated with biological legacies by affecting the spatial distributions of remnant old-growth trees. (English) [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] La distribution spatiale des legs biologiques laissés par les perturbations naturelles est une importante source de variabilité dans le développement de la forêt. Les auteurs ont étudié un type de legs biologique : les vieux arbres rémanents qui persistent dans les forêts matures de douglas. Ils ont fait l'hypothèse que la persistance varie avec l'hétérogénéité topographique qui influence le comportement du feu. Leurs deux zones d'étude sont situées dans la partie sud de la chaîne des Cascades dans l'État de Washington, aux États-Unis. On y retrouve un couvert de forêt mature non fragmentée qui origine d'un feu. Ils ont cartographié tous les vieux arbres rémanents (morts et vivants) le long de transects en bandes de 4,2 à 6,4 km. Des modèles numériques d'altitude ont été utilizés pour générer des classes de modelés convergents et divergents. L'analyse de fréquence a été utilizée pour tester les relations avec les modelés. Les tiges rémanentes encore vivantes de pruche de l'Ouest et de thuya géant sont fortement associées à des modelés convergents et à des orientations qui correspondent à une plus grande disponibilité de l'humidité dans le sol. Les tiges rémanentes encore vivantes de douglas sont très abondantes mais leur présence n'est pas corrélée avec la convergence ou la divergence bien que de plus fortes concentrations soient associées à certains modelés. Les chicots rémanents sont abondants dans les modelés convergents ou divergents. Les auteurs concluons que les espèces qui ont une faible résistance au feu survivent plus fréquemment dans les modelés qui ont pour effet de tempérer l'intensité du feu. La variabilité topographique peut indirectement influencer les fonctions écologiques associées aux legs biologiques en ayant un effet sur la distribution spatiale des vieux arbres rémanents.[Traduit par la Rédaction] (French) [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Canadian Journal of Forest Research is the property of Canadian Science Publishing and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
  • Zencey, E. (Routledge, New York, NY.New York, NY, 2009

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