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  • Wilson, Sandra (2006-04-03
      Bed of dahlia stock plants used in seed production. Some of the flowers are already setting seed.
  • McMahon, Peg (2006-07-13
  • McMahon, Peg (2006-07-07
      A self-organizing map (SOM) is a self-organized projection of high-dimensional data onto a typically 2-dimensional (2-D) feature map, wherein vector similarity is implicitly translated into topological closeness in the 2-D projection. However, when there are more neurons than input patterns, it can be challenging to interpret the results, due to diffuse cluster boundaries and limitations of current methods for displaying interneuron distances. In this brief, we introduce a new cluster reinforcement (CR) phase for sparsely-matched SOMs. The CR phase amplifies within-cluster similarity in an unsupervised, datadriven manner. Discontinuities in the resulting map correspond to between-cluster distances and are stored in a boundary (B) matrix. We describe a new hierarchical visualization of cluster boundaries displayed directly on feature maps, which requires no further clustering beyond what was implicitly accomplished during self-organization in SOM training. We use a synthetic benchmark problem and previously published microbial community profile data to demonstrate the benefits of the proposed methods.
  • Moeliono, M.; Wollenberg, E.; Limberg, G.; eds (Earthscan Publications, London, UK.London, UK, 2009
  • Ferreira, D.; Suslick, S.; Farley, J.; Costanza, R.; Krivov, S. (Energy Policy, 2004
      The main objective of this paper is to deepen the discussion regarding the application of financial assurance instruments, bonds, in the upstream oil sector. This paper will also attempt to explain the current choice of instruments within the sector. The concepts of environmental damages and internalization of environmental and regulatory costs will be briefly explored. Bonding mechanisms are presently being adopted by several governments with the objective of guaranteeing the availability of funds for end-of-leasing operations. Regulators are mainly concerned with the prospect of inheriting liabilities from lessees. Several forms of bonding instruments currently available were identified and a new instrument classification was proposed. Ten commonly used instruments were selected and analyzed under the perspective of both regulators and industry (surety, paid-in and periodic-payment collateral accounts, letters of credit, self-guaran tees, investment grade securities, real estate collaterals, insurance policies, pools, and special funds). A multiattribute value function model was then proposed to examine current instrument preferences. Preliminary simulations confirm the current scenario where regulators are likely to require surety bonds, letters of credit, and periodic payment collateral account tools. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Macedo, M. N.; DeFries, R. S.; Morton, D. C.; Stickler, C. M.; Galford, G. L.; Shimabukuro, Y. E. (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 2012
      From 2006 to 2010, deforestation in the Amazon frontier state of Mato Grosso decreased to 30% of its historical average (1996-2005) whereas agricultural production reached an all-time high. This study combines satellite data with government deforestation and production statistics to assess land-use transitions and potential market and policy drivers associated with these trends. In the forested region of the state, increased soy production from 2001 to 2005 was entirely due to cropland expansion into previously cleared pasture areas (74%) or forests (26%). From 2006 to 2010, 78% of production increases were due to expansion (22% to yield increases), with 91% on previously cleared land. Cropland expansion fell from 10 to 2% of deforestation between the two periods, with pasture expansion accounting for most remaining deforestation. Declining deforestation coincided with a collapse of commodity markets and implementation of policy measures to reduce deforestation. Soybean profitability has since increased to pre-2006 levels whereas deforestation continued to decline, suggesting that antideforestation measures may have influenced the agricultural sector. We found little evidence of direct leakage of soy expansion into cerrado in Mato Grosso during the late 2000s, although indirect land-use changes and leakage to more distant regions are possible. This study provides evidence that reduced deforestation and increased agricultural production can occur simultaneously in tropical forest frontiers, provided that land is available and policies promote the efficient use of already-cleared lands (intensification) while restricting deforestation. It remains uncertain whether government- and industry-led policies can contain deforestation if future market conditions favor another boom in agricultural expansion.
  • Fisher, B.; Turner, R. K.; Morling, P. (Ecological Economics, 2009
      The concept of ecosystems services has become an important model for linking the functioning of ecosystems to human welfare. Understanding this link is critical for a wide-range of decision-making contexts. While there have been several attempts to come up with a classification scheme for ecosystem services, there has not been an agreed upon, meaningful and consistent definition for ecosystem services. In this paper we offer a definition of ecosystem services that is likely to be operational for ecosystem service research and several classification schemes. We argue that any attempt at classifying ecosystem services should be based on both the characteristics of the ecosystems of interest and a decision context for which the concept of ecosystem services is being mobilized. Because of this there is not one classification scheme that will be adequate for the many contexts in which ecosystem service research may be utilized. We discuss several examples of how classification schemes will be a function of both ecosystem and ecosystem service characteristics and the decision-making context. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Heleba, David (2005-01-14
      This poly tube is used to cool and/or dehumidify greenhouse especially during colder months. Outside air is forced down length of tube. Holes down length of tube allow for more even distribution of cold air.
  • Kleijn, D.; Winfree, R.; Bartomeus, I.; Carvalheiro, L. G.; Henry, M.; Isaacs, R.; Klein, A. M.; Kremen, C.; M'Gonigle, L. K.; Rader, R.; Ricketts, T. H.; Williams, N. M.; Adamson, N. L.; Ascher, J. S.; Baldi, A.; Batary, P.; Benjamin, F.; Biesmeijer, J. C.; Blitzer, E. J.; Bommarco, R.; Brand, M. R.; Bretagnolle, V.; Button, L.; Cariveau, D. P.; Chifflet, R.; Colville, J. F.; Danforth, B. N.; Elle, E.; Garratt, M. P. D.; Herzog, F.; Holzschuh, A.; Howlett, B. G.; Jauker, F.; Jha, S.; Knop, E.; Krewenka, K. M.; Le Feon, V.; Mandelik, Y.; May, E. A.; Park, M. G.; Pisanty, G.; Reemer, M.; Riedinger, V.; Rollin, O.; Rundlof, M.; Sardinas, H. S.; Scheper, J.; Sciligo, A. R.; Smith, H. G.; Steffan-Dewenter, I.; Thorp, R.; Tscharntke, T.; Verhulst, J.; Viana, B. F.; Vaissiere, B. E.; Veldtman, R.; Westphal, C.; Potts, S. G. (Nature CommunicationsNat. Commun., 2015
      There is compelling evidence that more diverse ecosystems deliver greater benefits to people, and these ecosystem services have become a key argument for biodiversity conservation. However, it is unclear how much biodiversity is needed to deliver ecosystem services in a cost- effective way. Here we show that, while the contribution of wild bees to crop production is significant, service delivery is restricted to a limited subset of all known bee species. Across crops, years and biogeographical regions, crop-visiting wild bee communities are dominated by a small number of common species, and threatened species are rarely observed on crops. Dominant crop pollinators persist under agricultural expansion and many are easily enhanced by simple conservation measures, suggesting that cost- effective management strategies to promote crop pollination should target a different set of species than management strategies to promote threatened bees. Conserving the biological diversity of bees therefore requires more than just ecosystem-service-based arguments.
  • Qin, Jun (University of Vermont. Dept. of Chemistry, 2003-05
      Chiral a-branched amines are important components found within many diverse classes of biologically active natural products, designed pharmaceuticals and chiral building blocks. The study in the synthesis of chiral a-branched amines continues to be the focus of the methodology advancements due to their biological importance. In this dissertation, design and synthesis of novel chiral N-acylhydrazones and their applications in chiral a-branched amine and natural product synthesis are presented. Chiral N-acylhydrazones derived from N-aminooxazolidinone underwent intermolecular radical additions mediated by Bu3SnH. Simple secondary and tertiary radicals afforded N-acylhydrazine addition product in excellent stereocontrol in all cases in the presence of ZnCl2. Reduction of ketone acylhydrazones by Bu3SnH provided product hydrazines in high yield and moderate stereoselectivity. It was also found that Mn2(CO)10-mediated stereoselective intermolecular radical addition of different alkyl halides, including primary and difunctional alkyl iodides to different chiral hydrazones upon irradiation. Mn2(CO)10-mediated radical addition reactions tolerated additional functionality in either reactant, enabling hybrid radical-ionic annulation. Application of this methodology to natural product synthesis was demonstrated by an effective asymmetric synthesis of coniine and a synthetic approach to quinine.
  • Kemkes, R. J.; Farley, J.; Koliba, C. J. (Ecological Economics, 2010
      There are several policy tools available for the provision of ecosystem services. The economic characteristics of the ecosystem service being provided, such as rivalry and excludability, along with the spatial scale at which benefits accrue can help determine the appropriate policy approach. In this paper we provide a brief introduction to ecosystem services and discuss the policy tools available for providing them along with the dimensions, political feasibility and appropriateness of each tool. Throughout the paper we focus primarily on payments as a mechanism for ecosystem service provision. We present a framework for determining the characteristics of an ecosystem service and when payments are a viable policy tool option based on the characteristics. Additionally, we provide examples of when payments do not provide a socially desirable level of ecosystem benefits. We conclude with a summary of policy recommendations, specifically desirable property rights and payment types based on the particular classification of an ecosystem service. We also discuss the advantages of creating monopsony power to reduce transaction costs, delineating and bundling ecosystem services and utilizing existing intermediaries. (C) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Xu, Y. Y.; Schroth, A. W.; Rizzo, D. M. (Limnology and Oceanography-MethodsLimnol. Oceanogr. Meth., 2015
      Over the past 30+ years, researchers and water resource managers have often relied on a set of regression-based equations to describe the relationships between secchi depth (SD), chlorophyll (Chl) and total phosphorous (TP) and quantitatively assess lake trophic status after Carlson (1977). Here, we develop a revised framework for eutrophication assessment that incorporates recent statistical advances in ecology and leverages the increasing availability of lake-specific datasets in the 21st Century. Long-term (1992-2012) water quality data from Lake Champlain (LC) are used to revisit and revise classic equations of tropic state indices (TSIChl/TP). The upper boundaries of SD-ln(Chl) and ln(Chl)-ln(TP) distributions within this dataset fit well with quantile regression (99th, QR) to generate LC-specific TSIChl/TP equations. Our results illustrate that Carlson (1977)'s original TSIChl/TP equations overestimate the trophic status of LC relative to LC-specific equations, and highlight the power of the QR-derived TSIChl/TP metric. We combine TSISD and TSIChl into one metric to indicate pseudoeutrophication and pseudomesotrophication of oligotrophic waters as well as pseudoeutrophication of mesotrophic waters to identify waters threatened by potential trophic shift. Additionally, TSIChl and TSITP were coupled as a complimentary dual metric to indicate potential risks of excessive phosphorus loading to oligotrophic and mesotrophic waters. With these dual metric schemes, we performed cluster analysis of 15 locations to spatially assess trophic status and phosphorous risks across LC. This study describes a relatively simple and robust approach for lake-specific status assessment, the structure of which can be broadly utilized within monitoring and research communities.
  • Muller, Keona (2006-03-28
      Image of green fruit of coffee plant (Coffea arabica).
  • Seguino, Stephanie (The Review of Black Political EconomyRev Black Polit EconSpringer-Verlag, Dordrecht, Netherlands., 2012
  • McMahon, Peg (2005-04-12
      After exposure to short days, mum apical meristems begin to transition from vegetative to reproductive. This image shows that transition just as the individual flowers on the capitulum are becoming recognizable.
  • Tignor, Milton (2005-01-28
      three different sized transplants produced from three different sized seedling trays.
  • Fang, Wei (2005-02-18
      The digital psychrometric software has been used in practical applications as well as teaching and research. The software is capable of calculate properties of state and differences between 2 states, i.e. process, with 2 given independent properties and atmospheric pressure. PsyChart can be viewed as well as zoom in and out. PsyTable is another handy feature. Evaporative cooling process and vapor pressure deficit are 2 extra focus of the software.

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